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Innovations in the financial sector - The case of exotic foreign exchange options on the Polish market
; Warsaw University, Faculty of Management, Institute of Finance and Accounting
Puni tekst: pdf (289 KB),
Str. 91 - 113
This article discusses a problem of 'toxic' derivative financial instruments (TDIs) which occurred in Poland in 2007/2008 between Polish banks and some exporters, with the structure of a typical derivative instrument (call/put options) being firstly described. Many of them were 'exotic', i.e. previously unknown to Polish companies. Nevertheless, banks offered these instruments as products of advanced financial engineering innovations. Limited knowledge about such instruments was the main factor in causing further enterprises' problems. Many companies declared bankruptcy in the effect of changes on the foreign exchange market or suffered from serious financial problems. General losses of Polish companies from 'toxic' financial instruments are estimated at EUR 1.5 to as much as 20 billion. This article discusses character of relations between banks and enterprises, arising from the derivative transactions. The article analyzes two main issues: (a) asymmetry of the option structure hedging exporters against a foreign currency risk for a narrow corridor of an exchange rate level and (b) lack of knowledge about consequences of a contracted derivative transaction presented by the exporters. A case of a transaction carried out by a major Polish company and a leading bank on the Polish market is described and analyzed. Analysis of this case confirms the hypotheses that structure of options transactions produce unequal distribution of risk between enterprises and banks.
derivatives; toxic assets; export financing; financial crisis; Poland
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