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The caval living, cattle-breeding and agricultural spaces in les of the region of Baranja
; Regionalni zavod za zaštitu spomenika kulture u Osijeku, Croatia
Puni tekst: hrvatski, pdf (3 MB)
Španiček, Ž. (1992). Špiljski stanovi i gospodarski prostori u lesu na području Baranje. Studia ethnologica Croatica, 4(1), 69-92. Preuzeto s http://hrcak.srce.hr/75751
In the district of Baranja, especially in the villages Zmajevac and Suza an unique form of housing and farm-building architecture has been preserved up to present times. It is a question of spaces dug into loess, a yellow sediment rock, soft and suitable for digging. Because of their simplicity, dwellings stand out most. They are completely dug into the sheer slops of Bansko Brdo; made without any use of a special construction or building material, thus not forming any earth-cabins, they can be defined as artificial caves, known under the name of "gatori". They can be found in different form and spatial development which can vary from small, one-room spaces with low ceilings, to three-room dwellings consisting of a room, a kitchen and a larder. It can be noticed that the spatial distribution and usage of these cave-dwellings follows the same cultural pattern that can be found in traditional peasant houses. The same thing can be said for "gatori", too. In this way, the artificial caves dovetail with the rural architecture of Slavonija and Baranja.
As an opposition to "gatori", inhabited by the poorest inhabitants, stand wine-cellars, solid objects, that, using all of the natural advantages of loess, represent the most frequent as well as the best way of building in the loess sediments of Baranja. These cellars consist of two main parts:an underground building and a tunnel dug into the loess. In spite of following the traditional peasant houses, in form, building techniques and materials, these cellars show some significances of their own. The grapes are pressed here, but the cellars are also used as resting places for peasants after hard work in fields and vine-yards .Some ceIebrations,such as St.Vinko-s Day (the 22nd of January), the so called "vinceška",and sometimes also funeral feasts, are taking place in the vine cellars too.Thus,the cellars have an económicas well as a social function. The vine barrels are stored in the part of the cellar which is dug into the loess and has only the economic function. Although in a less extent then before, winegrowing is nowadays still expanded in Baranja. Therefore it is not rare that people replace old underground cellars for new ones.
With a whole line of characteristics, dwellings and economic spaces build in loess fit into the traditional architecture pattern of Slavonija and Baranja, and with their particularities have a specific architectural and cultural significance.
Because of recent war destructions in Baranja the fate of these, as well as of many other cultural values of this Croatian district is completely uncertain.
Baranja; cave dwelling; cattle breeding and agricultural sites in loess; wine-cellar in loess
Hrčak ID: 75751
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