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Softening point and Penetration Index of bitumen from parts of Southwestern Nigeria
Olugbenga A. Ohinola
; Energy and Environmental Research Group, Department of Geology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, 200284, Oyo State, Nigeria
Olugbenga A. Felode
; Energy and Environmental Research Group, Department of Petroleum Engineering, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, 200284, Oyo State, Nigeria
; Energy and Environmental Research Group, Department of Geology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, 200284, Oyo State, Nigeri
Puni tekst: pdf (563 KB),
Str. 319 - 323
Puni tekst: pdf (86 KB),
Str. 324 - 327
The softening point (SP) and penetration index (PI) of bitumen from parts of southwestern Nigeria are important properties needed for better design and optimization of the upgrading process of Nigerian bitumen. This study was carried out to design and fabricate a cost effective and efficient softening point tester to classify bitumen into grades.
The Ring and ball equipment was fabricated locally according to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and was utilized to determine the SP of bitumen samples collected from four locations namely: Agbabu (AB), Iluburin (IB), Loda (LB) and Ode-Omode (OB). Two disks of bitumen, cast in shouldered brass rings, were heated at a controlled rate in a liquid bath while each supports a steel ball. The SP was reported as the mean of the temperatures at which the two disks soften enough to allow each ball, enveloped in bitumen, to fall a distance of 25 mm. The SP values obtained were used to compute the various penetration indices and to predict the grade of bitumen.
The SP results for AB, IB, LB and OB are 30, 48, 48.10 and 38.10 °C respectively while that of PI results are -3.8, -1.3, -1.1, and -1.6 respectively. The bitumen grades predicted for the four locations are: temperature susceptible bitumen for AB (250/330 Grade) and conventional paving bitumen for OB, IB and LB (50/70 and 160/220 Grade). The OB, IB and LB samples are therefore suitable for road pavement, while the AB sample can be modified for industrial use.
Nigeria; softening point; bitumen; penetration index
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