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Dubrovnik and the Dubrovnik District in the Period between the Banovina of Croatia and the Italian Reoccupation (September 1939 – September 1941)

Franko Mirošević

Puni tekst: hrvatski, pdf (388 KB) str. 243-279 preuzimanja: 1.087* citiraj
APA 6th Edition
Mirošević, F. (2011). Dubrovnik i dubrovački kotar od Banovine Hrvatske do talijanske reokupacije (od rujna 1939. do rujna 1941.). Radovi Zavoda za povijesne znanosti HAZU u Zadru, (53), 243-279. Preuzeto s https://hrcak.srce.hr/75243
MLA 8th Edition
Mirošević, Franko. "Dubrovnik i dubrovački kotar od Banovine Hrvatske do talijanske reokupacije (od rujna 1939. do rujna 1941.)." Radovi Zavoda za povijesne znanosti HAZU u Zadru, vol. , br. 53, 2011, str. 243-279. https://hrcak.srce.hr/75243. Citirano 28.05.2020.
Chicago 17th Edition
Mirošević, Franko. "Dubrovnik i dubrovački kotar od Banovine Hrvatske do talijanske reokupacije (od rujna 1939. do rujna 1941.)." Radovi Zavoda za povijesne znanosti HAZU u Zadru , br. 53 (2011): 243-279. https://hrcak.srce.hr/75243
Harvard
Mirošević, F. (2011). 'Dubrovnik i dubrovački kotar od Banovine Hrvatske do talijanske reokupacije (od rujna 1939. do rujna 1941.)', Radovi Zavoda za povijesne znanosti HAZU u Zadru, (53), str. 243-279. Preuzeto s: https://hrcak.srce.hr/75243 (Datum pristupa: 28.05.2020.)
Vancouver
Mirošević F. Dubrovnik i dubrovački kotar od Banovine Hrvatske do talijanske reokupacije (od rujna 1939. do rujna 1941.). Radovi Zavoda za povijesne znanosti HAZU u Zadru [Internet]. 2011 [pristupljeno 28.05.2020.];(53):243-279. Dostupno na: https://hrcak.srce.hr/75243
IEEE
F. Mirošević, "Dubrovnik i dubrovački kotar od Banovine Hrvatske do talijanske reokupacije (od rujna 1939. do rujna 1941.)", Radovi Zavoda za povijesne znanosti HAZU u Zadru, vol., br. 53, str. 243-279, 2011. [Online]. Dostupno na: https://hrcak.srce.hr/75243. [Citirano: 28.05.2020.]

Sažetak
The paper presents the state of affairs in this area in the period between 1939 and September 1941. Several important issues are discussed here: the state of affairs within the local units of the Croatian Peasant Party on the eve of World War Two; the early days of the development of the Ustasha movement; poor economy; the state of affairs during the April War; Italian occupation; the state of affairs after the Roman Treaties; the establishment of the Ustasha government; the Ustasha terrorism and its widespread impact; the acceptance of the Independent State of Croatia amongst the people (presented through a survey of the press), etc.
The said issues are analysed thoroughly. The analysis shows that the Croatian Peasant Party, which had formerly been the strongest political power in the District, was cut to less than a half after the establishment of the Ustasha government; this was the result of a significant number of its distinguished members having joined the Ustasha movement and taken active part at high functions in the newly-established Ustasha government bodies. A minor part of senior members remained loyal to the party leadership and Dr. Vladko Maček. There were almost no so-called left party members, save for some exceptions in Župa dubrovačka and particularly on the Pelješac Peninsula. The Ustasha movement started developing in 1939, and by 10 April 1941, it had gradually and continually become stronger, thanks to receiving a considerable amount of support from the organisation called Križarsko bratstvo (the Brotherhood of the Crusaders).
Italian occupation, which took place on 17 April 1941, interrupted many plans the Ustasha members had regarding the reinforcement of their power. The Italians intended to stay in this area and annex it; this particularly terrified the Ustasha members. However, pursuant to the Roman Treaties, the Dubrovnik area was included in the Independent State of Croatia. The Italians left the so-called Second occupational zone, while the eastern part of Herzegovina (Čapljina, Ravno, Ljubinje, Stolac, Gacko and Trebinje), together with the Pelješac Peninsula, entered Velika župa Dubrava (the Great County of Dubrava), with the seat in Dubrovnik. The Italian Army and its command remained in the area, but the civil and military powers were handed over to the Independent State of Croatia.
The Ustasha government managed neither to become consolidated nor to function normally in the area of Velika župa Dubrava. The reasons for it were the following: the uprising of Serbs in the eastern part of Herzegovina; the discordance between the civil authorities, concentrated in Velika župa Dubrava, and the Ustasha movement, which operated via the Ustasha headquarters and camps. Government officials interfered against the law into the civil affairs, weakening thereby its efficiency in implementing the laws. This happened mainly due to the fact that the Ustasha members arrested, imprisoned, sent to camps and killed Serbs, Jews, Yugoslav nationalists, communists and Croats who had been disloyal and who had refused to collaborate. By the end of August 1941, the relations had – due to the inflamed uprising in Herzegovina – escalated to such an extent that they had threatened the security of both the occupational regime and the Ustasha government. Hence, Italy decided to reoccupy the Second zone, where it repeteadly introduced the civil and military powers.
The paper rests on original materials, so far mainly unpublished, as well as on the published memoirist writings and the press of that time. The memoirist literature (thoroughly analysed and verified) was used in the absence of original materials. The described events are presented in chronological order, divided by the issues tackled; the internal integration method was applied in their presentation.
The results arising from this paper show particular features that did not occur in the wider area of Dalmatia and were specifically linked with the state of affairs within the Croatian Peasant Party and the Ustasha movement. The main conclusion is that during three months of its existence, the Ustasha government, established in the Dubrovnik District, managed to become neither consolidated nor reinforced; while disposing of as much power as the command of the Italian Army allowed it. It enjoyed a considerable amount of support from the former authorities of the Banovina of Croatia. It however enjoyed markedly less power outside of Dubrovnik than in the city of Dubrovnik itself; there, the majority of the intellectual elite joined it, and in particular many attorneys-at-law.

Ključne riječi
Dubrovnik; the Dubrovnik District; the Autonomous Banovina of Croatia; the Independent State of Croatia; Italian occupation; World War Two; 1939 – 1941

Hrčak ID: 75243

URI
https://hrcak.srce.hr/75243

[hrvatski]

Posjeta: 1.664 *