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Local Speech of Koprivnica People - Then and Now

Mijo Lončarić ; Institute of Croatian Language and Linguistics, Zagreb, Croatia

Puni tekst: hrvatski, pdf (743 KB) str. 139-152 preuzimanja: 451* citiraj
APA 6th Edition
Lončarić, M. (2009). Govor Koprivnice i Podravine nekad i danas. Podravina, 8 (15), 139-152. Preuzeto s
MLA 8th Edition
Lončarić, Mijo. "Govor Koprivnice i Podravine nekad i danas." Podravina, vol. 8, br. 15, 2009, str. 139-152. Citirano 20.01.2020.
Chicago 17th Edition
Lončarić, Mijo. "Govor Koprivnice i Podravine nekad i danas." Podravina 8, br. 15 (2009): 139-152.
Lončarić, M. (2009). 'Govor Koprivnice i Podravine nekad i danas', Podravina, 8(15), str. 139-152. Preuzeto s: (Datum pristupa: 20.01.2020.)
Lončarić M. Govor Koprivnice i Podravine nekad i danas. Podravina [Internet]. 2009 [pristupljeno 20.01.2020.];8(15):139-152. Dostupno na:
M. Lončarić, "Govor Koprivnice i Podravine nekad i danas", Podravina, vol.8, br. 15, str. 139-152, 2009. [Online]. Dostupno na: [Citirano: 20.01.2020.]

Kajkavian dialect-Podravina is where the most important borderline of kaj-diasystem runs through: from Drava River, north of Koprivnica, across the town to foothills of Kalnik; from there onward to Medvednica and further to Zelina River.
Crossing Zelina, it makes a turn to the south, to where the river merges with Lonja and Ivanić-Grad; the borderline runs further to the east, to foothills of Moslavačka gora.
In Podravina, west of this dialectal border, there are so-called conservative kajkavian dialects, known for keeping original accentuation best preserved.
Eastward, or to be more precise- northeast of this Kajkavian dialect region, that’s where their revolutionary (the most revolutionary) speech patterns are, in terms of prosody- rhythm, intonation, stressing— two groups of speech.
The first group (I call Podravina dialect) is made of speech patterns with limited syllable spots- accent is on the last two syllables.
The second, much larger group, making majority of northeastern kaj-dialect region, is a group with another important characteristic in Slavic languages-feature that exists in part in Lithuanian language: cross tilde of non-diacritical sign, caret or circumflex (both in kaj-dialects, as well as Serbian and Croatian, we find long descending stress of syllables; i.e. mêso>mĕso; sũša>sûša).
Three kaj-dialects (my classification) meet in Koprivnica vicinity: Varaždin-Ludbreg (Ivšić’s group I); Podravina (Ivšić’s group IV, known as Podravskovirovski); Križevci-Bilogora (also Ivšić’s group IV). Što-dialect, or, new što-dialect rather, also spoken nearby, are secondary in this region, with separately recognized different speech of Peteranec (with Torčec) and Hlebine. The town of Koprivnica, both as the town itself and seat of the county, has its own specific significance and its accompanying speech.
New dialectal boundaries are conditioned with dislocation and moving out of the native population, fleeing from the Turks in mid-16th century and settlement of new population from southeastern Bosnia (ijekavskošćakavski-dialect spoken in Virovitica vicinity; ikavsko-jekavski speech of Virovitica); and eastern Herzegovina (most new što-dialects). After the Turks had left, resettlement from the opposite direction continued, as kaj-dialectal speakers were coming from the west, some of them probably descendants from the previously exiled population.
Interlinking and mixing of different kaj-dialect speech types from within and also, with što-dialects, brought about new speech types. One of them is spoken in Podravina, not so widely spread, but well-spread in northern Moslavina (hence, earning its type name, sjeverno-moslavački, or rather, čazmanski dialect).
Town speech of Koprivnica formed as an inter dialect, resulting from various dialects from surrounding areas- of three kaj-dialects and one novoštokavski (new type of što-dialect) on one side, and the impact of literary language. Kaj-dialectal literary language must have been strong as well. Its structure and lexicology was, too, influenced by various kaj-dialectal types, different dialects. After 1835, the new literary language was of a different type.
Today in Koprivnica, like it’s accustomed in towns and cities nowadays, there are two means, idioms of communication. The first is Koprivnica variant of colloquial speech style of Croatian literary language, as a subtype of Zagreb variety (just like others, i.e. Križevci, Varaždin, Krapina variety). The second is Koprivnica kaj-interdialect (Koprivnica kaj), its formation and character being discussed before. We can speak of yet another idiom with similar function which, however, should not be confused with Koprivnica sub-variant of colloquial literary language, even though they’re close. The same situation, yet on a lesser scale, is with Zagreb situation, where we have colloquial -style idiom with Zagreb što-dialect as well. People who speak što-dialect, either in Koprivnica or Zagreb, have such mother tongue idiom (što); in Koprivnica, it’s rather the new što-idiom, or, novoštokavština.
Only after a thorough, complex study and sociolinguistics and dialectal research, we can give figures and numbers on percentage of population speaking in those different idioms, what their lingual characteristics are, or their structure. In Koprivnica, this is yet to be done.
Other towns and cities, like Split, for example - there are studies conducted in sociolinguistics, resulting in dictionaries of speech. On the other hand, the town of Varaždin already has its dictionary of idioms, but a comprehensive study is yet to follow.
Koprivnica needs, and that is a must, to have its own language richness and variety, a symbol of its identity, collected and displayed properly, just like it has rounded up its accomplishments in business, education, arts, sports, healthcare, science, geography and history. I’ve advocated these studies and research some thirty years ago, when I actually was in a position to do a lot more, just like I can do a lot less. Since Koprivnica has no institution that deals with the language, I’ve advocated and I still do (not only for the language, but for similar areas of interest, too) that the town museum opens up a spot for at least one, if not two, linguists, at least one dialectologist- just like we already have historians, archeologists, art historians, ethnologists... These linguists would study and research the language of the town and its vicinity.

Ključne riječi
kaj-dialect; Podravina; Koprivnica; dialects; Varaždin-Ludbreg; Podravina; Križeci-Bilogora; town speech; county dialectologists

Hrčak ID: 77860



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