APA 6th Edition Dretar, M. (2011). Tragom nestale židovske zajednice. Historia Varasdiensis, 1 (1), 195-213. Preuzeto s https://hrcak.srce.hr/85411
MLA 8th Edition Dretar, Milivoj. "Tragom nestale židovske zajednice." Historia Varasdiensis, vol. 1, br. 1, 2011, str. 195-213. https://hrcak.srce.hr/85411. Citirano 11.05.2021.
Chicago 17th Edition Dretar, Milivoj. "Tragom nestale židovske zajednice." Historia Varasdiensis 1, br. 1 (2011): 195-213. https://hrcak.srce.hr/85411
Harvard Dretar, M. (2011). 'Tragom nestale židovske zajednice', Historia Varasdiensis, 1(1), str. 195-213. Preuzeto s: https://hrcak.srce.hr/85411 (Datum pristupa: 11.05.2021.)
Vancouver Dretar M. Tragom nestale židovske zajednice. Historia Varasdiensis [Internet]. 2011 [pristupljeno 11.05.2021.];1(1):195-213. Dostupno na: https://hrcak.srce.hr/85411
IEEE M. Dretar, "Tragom nestale židovske zajednice", Historia Varasdiensis, vol.1, br. 1, str. 195-213, 2011. [Online]. Dostupno na: https://hrcak.srce.hr/85411. [Citirano: 11.05.2021.]
Sažetak The first mention of Jews as related to Ludbreg appears in the year 1768, when the Jews of the Hungarian parish Zala complained about having to pay fines at the Ludbreg Fair. They tended to stay in each place for several days in order to trade but were required to pay various fees since they were not welcome by local authorities. More significant immigration from the Austrian territories and from Hungary began at the end of the 18th century. At that time Jews began settling in larger towns such as Varazdin, Koprivnica, and Krizevci, later migrating to Ludbreg, the market town then ruled by the Counts of Betthyany. The middle of the 19th century saw an increase in the number of Jews who settled in these parts, and their number grew to 265, according to records from the year 1900. Most of them lived in Ludbreg, but were also present in practically all of the surrounding villages where they were mostly shop or restaurant owners or were engaged in running small industrial enterprises (brickyards, flour mills and mines). Some individuals were involved in more profitable pursuits such as medicine, law and banking. The Jews of Ludbreg broke of from the Koprivnica Jewish community in 1881 and established the “Religious Israelite Community of Ludbreg”. The first official rabbi of the community, Leopold Fleishman, is mentioned in 1885; the community cemetery was founded in 1890. The year 1895 is the date that marks the construction of the synagogue in Ludbreg. This synagogue was destroyed in 1942 and razed after WWII. Ludbreg’s Jews participated in the activities of most of the town’s economic and cultural associations. They were also engaged in the activities of their own societies: Chevra Kadisha, Jewish Social Work Association, and the Zionist association “Agudat Zion”. Jews were well integrated into the daily life of Ludbreg, so that there was practically no overt anti-Semitism. There are, however, records of riots that occurred in the years 1903 and 1918 when rioters devastated some Jewish shops and the bank. Later, as World War II engulfed this area, so began the persecution of Jews. Most of the Jews perished in concentration camps: Jasenovac, Loborgrad, Đakovo, Jadovno, and Auschwitz. A total of about 160 Jews who had lived in the Ludbreg area or had their origins here were killed; only 50 survived the War, mostly those who joined the partisans or were hidden during the entire period of the war. Nothing remains of the former Jewish community of Ludbreg but a few survivors, their former homes, and a small cemetery.