Sažetak Prostatitis syndrome is a common clinical entity that includes a variety of functional disorders of the prostate. Clinical manifestations of prostatitis syndrome include urethral, prostatic, sexual and other symptoms. The basic criteria for categorisation of prostatitis syndrome are clinical symptoms and signs and the presence of leukocytes and bacteria in selected urine samples and prostate exprimate. Antimicrobial treatment is indicated in patients with acute bacterial prostatitis, chronic bacterial prostatitis, inflammatory symptoms of chronic pelvic pain syndrome without detectable infection, including patients with bacterial prostatitis in whom the causative pathogen has not been confirmed by classical microbiological methods, and in selected patients with non-inflammatory chronic pelvic pain syndrome without detectable infection and patients with asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis. The treatment of chronic noninflammatory pelvic pain syndrome without detectable infection includes phytotherapy, hygienic and dietary measures, alpha-adrenergic antagonists, muscle relaxants, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, lifestyle changes, psychotherapy, and other therapeutic measures.