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Observations on post-Carolingian Weapons and equestrian Equipment in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina within the Context of historical Events of the 10th and 11th Century

Maja Petrinec ; Muzej hrvatskih arheoloških spomenika

Puni tekst: hrvatski, pdf (4 MB) str. 71-129 preuzimanja: 1.040* citiraj
APA 6th Edition
Petrinec, M. (2012). Zapažanja o poslijekarolinškom oružju i konjaničkoj opremi s područja Hrvatske i Bosne i Hercegovine u kontekstu povijesnih zbivanja u 10. i 11. stoljeću. Starohrvatska prosvjeta, III (39), 71-129. Preuzeto s https://hrcak.srce.hr/92552
MLA 8th Edition
Petrinec, Maja. "Zapažanja o poslijekarolinškom oružju i konjaničkoj opremi s područja Hrvatske i Bosne i Hercegovine u kontekstu povijesnih zbivanja u 10. i 11. stoljeću." Starohrvatska prosvjeta, vol. III, br. 39, 2012, str. 71-129. https://hrcak.srce.hr/92552. Citirano 23.01.2020.
Chicago 17th Edition
Petrinec, Maja. "Zapažanja o poslijekarolinškom oružju i konjaničkoj opremi s područja Hrvatske i Bosne i Hercegovine u kontekstu povijesnih zbivanja u 10. i 11. stoljeću." Starohrvatska prosvjeta III, br. 39 (2012): 71-129. https://hrcak.srce.hr/92552
Harvard
Petrinec, M. (2012). 'Zapažanja o poslijekarolinškom oružju i konjaničkoj opremi s područja Hrvatske i Bosne i Hercegovine u kontekstu povijesnih zbivanja u 10. i 11. stoljeću', Starohrvatska prosvjeta, III(39), str. 71-129. Preuzeto s: https://hrcak.srce.hr/92552 (Datum pristupa: 23.01.2020.)
Vancouver
Petrinec M. Zapažanja o poslijekarolinškom oružju i konjaničkoj opremi s područja Hrvatske i Bosne i Hercegovine u kontekstu povijesnih zbivanja u 10. i 11. stoljeću. Starohrvatska prosvjeta [Internet]. 2012 [pristupljeno 23.01.2020.];III(39):71-129. Dostupno na: https://hrcak.srce.hr/92552
IEEE
M. Petrinec, "Zapažanja o poslijekarolinškom oružju i konjaničkoj opremi s područja Hrvatske i Bosne i Hercegovine u kontekstu povijesnih zbivanja u 10. i 11. stoljeću", Starohrvatska prosvjeta, vol.III, br. 39, str. 71-129, 2012. [Online]. Dostupno na: https://hrcak.srce.hr/92552. [Citirano: 23.01.2020.]

Sažetak
The majority of finds, listed in the catalogue, has
been known for some time and published long ago,
partly even chronologically correctly evaluated in
specialist and scientific literature. However, it must be
stated that these finds have yet not been dealt with as
a homogenous group. In this regard, this work will focus
in detail on the aforementioned group. The finds
mainly consist of equestrian equipment. To a smaller
extent, there are also fittings of belt sets and fittings
of scabbards of swords and fighting knives. The catalogue
also includes eight post-Carolingian swords
from Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. The finds
can be classified into three groups:
1st group – 9th century
2nd group – 10th century
3rd group – 11th century
Regarding the finds from the first group in the
territory of Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, it
must be especially stated that weapons and equestrian
equipment were relatively unknown in the period after
Prince Borna’s death until the late 9th century. The
few examples of spurs, listed in the catalogue, derive
from mostly unknown circumstances of discovery.
Is the reason for this the weakening of the Frankish
influence and hence the stop of supply with items of
western provenience, while local production is still
nonexistent, or is the small amount of finds only the
consequence of insufficient research? Any conclusion
at this point would be at the level of speculation.
More significant changes are noticeable at the
turn of the 10th century, when characteristic groups of
items with calottes, which are decorated with radially
arranged grooves, were discovered at numerous sites.
Based on the mentioned finds, the complete equipment
of warriors and horsemen can be reconstructed.
This specific group is characteristic only for the area of
Croatia and Western Bosnia, and the easternmost find
derives from Mogorjelo that is located on the right
bank of the Neretva River.
The distribution map shows that the finds are concentrated
in the area of the early mediaeval Croatian
Principality (it also includes south-western Bosnia with counties Livno, Pset and Pliva). One find (Mogorjelo)
originates from the territory of Pagania (Neretva
Principality), whereas two others from north-western
Bosnia (Prijedor and Petoševci). If we also add other
versions of spurs that can be reliably dated to the 10th
century to these finds, then we get two more sites in
the area of the Croatian Principality and one in northwestern
Bosnia (Gomjenica near Prijedor). Another
important and noticeable point is the fact that the
largest number of finds was recorded along the border
counties of the Croatian Principality (Proložac and
Cista Velika in Imotski County, Podgradina in Livno
County and Čipuljić in Pliva County). Also nearby
Travnik, located in early mediaeval Bosnia, must be
taken into account. Following this geographical line
are locations of sites in north-western Bosnia (Gomjenica,
Prijedor, Petoševici). Every single mapped
site in the area of the Croatian Principality is an important
location that is linked to the Croatian ruling
class. This is additionally confirmed by royal inscriptions
and other archaeological finds that derive from
there (Knin, Kapitul, Biskupija-Crkvina, Bribirska
glavica and surroundings, Muć Gornji, surrounding
area of Klis and Solin). The distribution map also
shows that finds of spurs, belt sets and fittings from
the 10th century are most numerous along the eastern
border of the Croatian Principality, but non-existent
in the area west of Knin and Bribir. This fact can be
linked to the wars that the Croatian ruler Tomislav
led against Hungarians and Bulgarians in the first half
of the 10th century. Finds of spurs on graveyards in
north-western Bosnia are evidence of Croatia’s expansion
to the north during the reign of Tomislav.
In the early 11th century new types of spurs occur
that have branch endings in shape of a double loophole.
Those spurs already show recognizable elements
that would become characteristic for spurs throughout
this entire century, and even later in the 12th and
13th century. The map of distribution shows the highest
concentration right on the territory of Croatia and
the Neretva Principality.
Within the context of historical events in the second half of the 11th century, the find discovered in
grave 4 next to the Basilica of Saint Peter and Moses
in Solin is very interesting. The first historical document
about the church is the deed of donation of
King Petar Krešimir from 1069. The basilica in Solin
is also the historical place of Zvonimir’s coronation as
king of Dalmatia and Croatia in 1075. The church is
an early Romanesque building that was built around
the mid-11th century. Archaeological excavations conducted
along the southern church wall revealed six
early mediaeval graves. One of them was grave 4 that
contained the find of spurs and a Byzantine encolpion.
The burials there date to the second half of the 11th
century, i.e. after the church’s construction, which is
also confirmed by the earlier mentioned grave finds.
It is the time during which Croatia was ruled by Petar
Krešimir and Zvonimir. To this period refers the in
historical and archaeological literature thoroughly
examined and controversial legend about the violent
death of Zvonimir and, in this regard, the call for crusade.
Surely, the finds from grave 4 cannot give answer
to these major questions, but truly testify to the spirit
of this time. The spurs belong to the type that appears
on the eve of the First Crusade. If we also consider
all other finds of spurs from the 11th century, it must
be stated that Croatia had certainly had a large army
that could have gathered somewhere in the east for
the military campaign. Interesting in this regard is
also the appearance of reliquary crosses in graves with
spurs and other weapons from the 11th century. The presence of pectoral crosses- encolpia is linked
to the phenomenon of pilgrimage to holy places with
evangelical events. They appear in large numbers
along the pilgrim and crusade routes towards Constantinople.
Their occurrence in Western Europe is
related- at the turn of the second millennium- to the
apocalyptic prophecies of the imminent end of the
world. Waves of pilgrims from the west headed to the
Holy Land by land routes through Hungary and the
Balkan Peninsula and further by land or sea to Jerusalem.
Even the oldest reliably dated finds of Byzantine
crosses in Croatia from Putalj and Ležajića Glavica in
Đevrske originate from the first half of the 11th century.
Constant attacks on pilgrims resulted eventually
in the convening of the First Crusade to liberate the
Holy Land. The presence of reliquary crosses in graves
with spurs and weapons from the second half of the
11th century certainly indicates to the possibility that
soldiers brought them during the campaign towards
the east. There is also, of course, the other possibility
that they were souvenirs of pilgrims. Finally, regarding
the legend on the murder of King Zvonimir, the respective archaeological finds are evidence that Croatia could have had a larger military land force by the end of the 11th century (remember that horsemenwearers of spurs usually belonged to the higher, noble classes) and that King Zvonimir could have convened and called them to some military campaign towards the east.

Ključne riječi
Croatian Principality; weapons; equestrian equipment; Tomislav; Zvonimir

Hrčak ID: 92552

URI
https://hrcak.srce.hr/92552

[hrvatski]

Posjeta: 1.789 *