Sažetak The four centuries of Jewish history from the conquest of Alexander the Great (332 B.C.) to the destruction of the Temple (A.D. 70) were a period of considerable religious, political, and intellectual activity. It is not surprising, then, that they were also characterized by a notable body of literay productions, many of which are extant today. These works are religious in nature, for religion was woven into every phase of Jewish life. At the same time they reflect strongly the political and intellectual movements of their times. The literature from this period is made up of (1) books known as the Apocrypha and the pseudepigrapha, consisting of wisdom literature, patriotic stories, histories, and apocalyptic works; (2) the writings of the Qumran community (probably Essens), most of which have come from the recently discovered caves near the Dead Sea
and are still in process of publication; (3) the allegorical treaties of Philo of Alexandria, the Hellenistic philosopher-theologian; and (4) the works of Josephus.