Sažetak Inflammation is the mother of disease including complications to surgery; infections and adhesions. Lack of proper microbiota, dysbiosis, with subsequent leakage into the body of endotoxin, is one of the key factors behind chronic inflammation and surgical complications. The microbiota of Westerners is dramatically reduced in comparison to rural individuals living a similar lifestyle to our Paleolithic forefathers and to free-living primates such as the chimpanzee. As a consequence of dysbiosis most barriers of the body will leak live or dead microbes and/or microbial products into the body; leaky gut, leaky airways, leaky skin, leaky oral cavity, leaky vagina, leaky placenta, leaky blood-brain barrier etc, hereby conditioning the body for various diseases and complications to invasive treatments. Most medical attempts to prevent such an unsuccessful development including antibiotics, bowel preparation, enteral nutrition, mechanical ventilation, use of drains and lines have been largely unsuccessful and often lead to opposite results. Recent attempts trying alternative treatment options are discussed.