Sažetak Rewiev of the current knowledge related to the etiology, clinical picture, treatment, and prevention of root surface caries (RSC) is presented. The prevalance of RSC rates vary from 20 to 40 percentage depending on the age of the population studied and the definition of RSC applied. Prevention of RSC requires oral hygiene instructions and dietary advices as well as drinking of optimally fluoridated water combined with the appropriate use of topical fluoride agents. Glass ionomer cements are considered the best and the most successfully used filling material for root surface cavities. Epidemiologic data indicate that RSC increases with age and becomes a major health problem in dentistry. Since our present knowledge about root caries is insufficient, more research is needed in every aspect of the disease.