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https://doi.org/10.21464/sp31113

Non-Pharmacological Tools for Neuroenhancement. Neuroethical Issues

Julija Erhardt   ORCID icon orcid.org/0000-0002-4718-7410 ; University of Zagreb, Faculty of Science, Rooseveltov trg 6, HR–10000 Zagreb
Dubravka Švob Štrac   ORCID icon orcid.org/0000-0001-6200-2405 ; Institute Ruđer Bošković, Division of Molecular Medicine, Bijenička cesta 54, HR–10000 Zagreb

Puni tekst: engleski, pdf (813 KB) str. 181-194 preuzimanja: 178* citiraj
APA 6th Edition
Erhardt, J. i Švob Štrac, D. (2016). Non-Pharmacological Tools for Neuroenhancement. Neuroethical Issues. Synthesis philosophica, 31 (1), 181-194. https://doi.org/10.21464/sp31113
MLA 8th Edition
Erhardt, Julija i Dubravka Švob Štrac. "Non-Pharmacological Tools for Neuroenhancement. Neuroethical Issues." Synthesis philosophica, vol. 31, br. 1, 2016, str. 181-194. https://doi.org/10.21464/sp31113. Citirano 29.01.2020.
Chicago 17th Edition
Erhardt, Julija i Dubravka Švob Štrac. "Non-Pharmacological Tools for Neuroenhancement. Neuroethical Issues." Synthesis philosophica 31, br. 1 (2016): 181-194. https://doi.org/10.21464/sp31113
Harvard
Erhardt, J., i Švob Štrac, D. (2016). 'Non-Pharmacological Tools for Neuroenhancement. Neuroethical Issues', Synthesis philosophica, 31(1), str. 181-194. https://doi.org/10.21464/sp31113
Vancouver
Erhardt J, Švob Štrac D. Non-Pharmacological Tools for Neuroenhancement. Neuroethical Issues. Synthesis philosophica [Internet]. 2016 [pristupljeno 29.01.2020.];31(1):181-194. https://doi.org/10.21464/sp31113
IEEE
J. Erhardt i D. Švob Štrac, "Non-Pharmacological Tools for Neuroenhancement. Neuroethical Issues", Synthesis philosophica, vol.31, br. 1, str. 181-194, 2016. [Online]. https://doi.org/10.21464/sp31113
Puni tekst: hrvatski, pdf (813 KB) str. 181-194 preuzimanja: 119* citiraj
APA 6th Edition
Erhardt, J. i Švob Štrac, D. (2016). Nefarmakološki alati za neuropoboljšavanje. Neuroetički problemi. Synthesis philosophica, 31 (1), 181-194. https://doi.org/10.21464/sp31113
MLA 8th Edition
Erhardt, Julija i Dubravka Švob Štrac. "Nefarmakološki alati za neuropoboljšavanje. Neuroetički problemi." Synthesis philosophica, vol. 31, br. 1, 2016, str. 181-194. https://doi.org/10.21464/sp31113. Citirano 29.01.2020.
Chicago 17th Edition
Erhardt, Julija i Dubravka Švob Štrac. "Nefarmakološki alati za neuropoboljšavanje. Neuroetički problemi." Synthesis philosophica 31, br. 1 (2016): 181-194. https://doi.org/10.21464/sp31113
Harvard
Erhardt, J., i Švob Štrac, D. (2016). 'Nefarmakološki alati za neuropoboljšavanje. Neuroetički problemi', Synthesis philosophica, 31(1), str. 181-194. https://doi.org/10.21464/sp31113
Vancouver
Erhardt J, Švob Štrac D. Nefarmakološki alati za neuropoboljšavanje. Neuroetički problemi. Synthesis philosophica [Internet]. 2016 [pristupljeno 29.01.2020.];31(1):181-194. https://doi.org/10.21464/sp31113
IEEE
J. Erhardt i D. Švob Štrac, "Nefarmakološki alati za neuropoboljšavanje. Neuroetički problemi", Synthesis philosophica, vol.31, br. 1, str. 181-194, 2016. [Online]. https://doi.org/10.21464/sp31113
Puni tekst: francuski, pdf (813 KB) str. 181-194 preuzimanja: 69* citiraj
APA 6th Edition
Erhardt, J. i Švob Štrac, D. (2016). Des moyens non pharmacologiques pour une « neuro-amélioration » (Neuroenhancement). Problèmes neuroéthiques. Synthesis philosophica, 31 (1), 181-194. https://doi.org/10.21464/sp31113
MLA 8th Edition
Erhardt, Julija i Dubravka Švob Štrac. "Des moyens non pharmacologiques pour une « neuro-amélioration » (Neuroenhancement). Problèmes neuroéthiques." Synthesis philosophica, vol. 31, br. 1, 2016, str. 181-194. https://doi.org/10.21464/sp31113. Citirano 29.01.2020.
Chicago 17th Edition
Erhardt, Julija i Dubravka Švob Štrac. "Des moyens non pharmacologiques pour une « neuro-amélioration » (Neuroenhancement). Problèmes neuroéthiques." Synthesis philosophica 31, br. 1 (2016): 181-194. https://doi.org/10.21464/sp31113
Harvard
Erhardt, J., i Švob Štrac, D. (2016). 'Des moyens non pharmacologiques pour une « neuro-amélioration » (Neuroenhancement). Problèmes neuroéthiques', Synthesis philosophica, 31(1), str. 181-194. https://doi.org/10.21464/sp31113
Vancouver
Erhardt J, Švob Štrac D. Des moyens non pharmacologiques pour une « neuro-amélioration » (Neuroenhancement). Problèmes neuroéthiques. Synthesis philosophica [Internet]. 2016 [pristupljeno 29.01.2020.];31(1):181-194. https://doi.org/10.21464/sp31113
IEEE
J. Erhardt i D. Švob Štrac, "Des moyens non pharmacologiques pour une « neuro-amélioration » (Neuroenhancement). Problèmes neuroéthiques", Synthesis philosophica, vol.31, br. 1, str. 181-194, 2016. [Online]. https://doi.org/10.21464/sp31113
Puni tekst: njemački, pdf (813 KB) str. 181-194 preuzimanja: 92* citiraj
APA 6th Edition
Erhardt, J. i Švob Štrac, D. (2016). Nicht pharmakologische Mittel für Neuroverbesserung. Neuroethische Fragen. Synthesis philosophica, 31 (1), 181-194. https://doi.org/10.21464/sp31113
MLA 8th Edition
Erhardt, Julija i Dubravka Švob Štrac. "Nicht pharmakologische Mittel für Neuroverbesserung. Neuroethische Fragen." Synthesis philosophica, vol. 31, br. 1, 2016, str. 181-194. https://doi.org/10.21464/sp31113. Citirano 29.01.2020.
Chicago 17th Edition
Erhardt, Julija i Dubravka Švob Štrac. "Nicht pharmakologische Mittel für Neuroverbesserung. Neuroethische Fragen." Synthesis philosophica 31, br. 1 (2016): 181-194. https://doi.org/10.21464/sp31113
Harvard
Erhardt, J., i Švob Štrac, D. (2016). 'Nicht pharmakologische Mittel für Neuroverbesserung. Neuroethische Fragen', Synthesis philosophica, 31(1), str. 181-194. https://doi.org/10.21464/sp31113
Vancouver
Erhardt J, Švob Štrac D. Nicht pharmakologische Mittel für Neuroverbesserung. Neuroethische Fragen. Synthesis philosophica [Internet]. 2016 [pristupljeno 29.01.2020.];31(1):181-194. https://doi.org/10.21464/sp31113
IEEE
J. Erhardt i D. Švob Štrac, "Nicht pharmakologische Mittel für Neuroverbesserung. Neuroethische Fragen", Synthesis philosophica, vol.31, br. 1, str. 181-194, 2016. [Online]. https://doi.org/10.21464/sp31113

Sažetak
Advances in neuroscience and technology brought us several methods that have potential to non-pharmacologically influence our brain. most of these methods are developed with the purpose of treating disorders, but also have favourable results on cognition and mood in the healthy, and the potential to be used for enhancement purposes. Two categories of methods are used for treatments of the brain, methods that apply a magnetic field and those that apply an electrical current through the scalp. Several methods have been developed that use one of these principles for treatment, most important being transcranial magnetic stimulation (TmS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). The aim of this review is to give a short overview of different aspects of the most widely used non-pharmacological techniques that can be used for enhancement purposes and state the most relevant ethical issues related to the safety, influence on character, justice and autonomy of their us. Irrespective of the amount of information on the mechanisms and modes of action for specific methods, the possible range and scope of their side effects and the implications of their potential use for enhancement, have not been emphasized enough. Outside clinical settings, these devices are unregulated, with no system in place to ensure their safety. moreover, the all-pervading technology that we live surrounded by and the lack of public discourse, all contribute against a reasonable and slow approach to their implementation and resulted in the spreading and increase in their commercial use.

Ključne riječi
neuroethics; neuroenhancement; non-invasive brain stimulation; transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS); Shakti-8; transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS); transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS); transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS)

Hrčak ID: 179905

URI
https://hrcak.srce.hr/179905

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