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Šumarski list, Vol. 141 No. 3-4, 2017.

Prethodno priopćenje
https://doi.org/10.31298/sl.141.3-4.4

Mjere u lovstvu i šumarstvu značajno utječu na gustoću populacije jelena običnog

Matija Stergar ; SLOVENIA FOREST SERVICE
Klemen Jerina ; UNIVERSITY OF LJUBLJANA, BIOTEHNICAL FACULTY, DEPARTMENT OF FORESTRY AND RENEWABLE FOREST RESOURCES

Puni tekst: engleski, pdf (1 MB) str. 139-149 preuzimanja: 143* citiraj
APA 6th Edition
Stergar, M. i Jerina, K. (2017). Wildlife and forest management measures significantly impact red deer population density. Šumarski list, 141 (3-4), 139-149. https://doi.org/10.31298/sl.141.3-4.4
MLA 8th Edition
Stergar, Matija i Klemen Jerina. "Wildlife and forest management measures significantly impact red deer population density." Šumarski list, vol. 141, br. 3-4, 2017, str. 139-149. https://doi.org/10.31298/sl.141.3-4.4. Citirano 22.02.2019.
Chicago 17th Edition
Stergar, Matija i Klemen Jerina. "Wildlife and forest management measures significantly impact red deer population density." Šumarski list 141, br. 3-4 (2017): 139-149. https://doi.org/10.31298/sl.141.3-4.4
Harvard
Stergar, M., i Jerina, K. (2017). 'Wildlife and forest management measures significantly impact red deer population density', Šumarski list, 141(3-4), str. 139-149. doi: https://doi.org/10.31298/sl.141.3-4.4
Vancouver
Stergar M, Jerina K. Wildlife and forest management measures significantly impact red deer population density. Šumarski list [Internet]. 2017 [pristupljeno 22.02.2019.];141(3-4):139-149. doi: https://doi.org/10.31298/sl.141.3-4.4
IEEE
M. Stergar i K. Jerina, "Wildlife and forest management measures significantly impact red deer population density", Šumarski list, vol.141, br. 3-4, str. 139-149, 2017. [Online]. doi: https://doi.org/10.31298/sl.141.3-4.4

Rad u XML formatu

Sažetak
Jelen obični (Cervus elaphus L.) je u mnogim dijelovima svijeta važna ekološka vrsta i popularna divljač, te kao takva ima značajan izravan utjecaj na čovjeka. Istovremeno može imati štetne posljedice na okoliš, posebice na šumarstvo. Težina ovih posljedica ovisi o gustoći populacija jelena običnog, što zauzvrat u značajnom stupnju ovisi o kvaliteti staništa i prijašnjem upravljanju ovom vrstom. Oba čimbenika snažno odražavaju ljudske utjecaje. Ovo istraživanje proučava utjecaje određenih okolišnih i povijesnih čimbenika, posebice onih antropogenih, na raširenost i lokalne gustoće populacija jelena običnog. Područje istraživanja je Slovenija, zemljopisno, klimatski i krajobrazno izuzetno raznovrsna država. Jelen obični je u povijesti istrijebljen i reintroduciran prije 100 godina na nekoliko mjesta, a također je i spontano imigrirao iz Mađarske (Slika 1). Danas je proširen na 60% površine države, ali nije još dosegao sva pogodna staništa zbog sporog širenja. Analiza je obuhvatila nezavisne varijable širokog raspona okolišnih varijabli i varijable “troškovna udaljenost”, koja prikazuje “težinu” disperzije jelena običnog od mjesta reintrodukcije, odnosno imigracije. Procjene lokalnih gustoća jelena običnog (zavisna varijabla) su dobivene pomoću dvije metode: podaci o izvršenim odstrjelnim kvotama i metodom brojanja izmeta. Vrijednosti varijabli su pripremljene na relativno finoj prostornoj rezoluciji (imajući na umu površinu cijelog područja) od 1 km2. U skladu s teorijom o višestrukom izboru staništa, zavisnost jelena običnog o okolišu je analizirana na dvije razine: 1) globalni doseg jelena običnog (nazočnost/nenazočnost) i 2) gustoće lokalnih populacija unutar područja raširenosti. Na obje razine je provedena bivarijatna (korelacija) i multivarijatna (regresija) analiza. Nazočnost jelena običnog je najvjerojatnija u blizini mjesta reintrodukcije, odnosno imigracije, što ističe važnost varijable “troškovna udaljenost”, te u velikim šumskim kompleksima, što ukazuje na pozitivan utjecaj udjela šume i veličinu šumske plohe te negativan utjecaj gustoće ruba šume (Tablica 1, Tablica 2). Ove varijable također utječu na gustoću populacije, koja raste s padom udaljenosti od hranilišta i pozitivno je vezana s udjelom sastojina u kojima dominira obična smreka. Korelacija također ukazuje na pozitivnu ovisnost s udjelom mladih sastojina (Tablica 1, Tablica 3). Troškovna udaljenost od mjesta reintrodukcije te udio i kontinuitet šume prikazuje ljudske intervencije u povijesti (nekadašnje upravljanje jelenom običnim i korištenje prostora od strane čovjeka). Poznavanje utjecaja ovih čimbenika na jelena običnog je stoga važno za razumijevanje prošlosti i predviđanje buduće dinamike populacije. Stanište jelena običnog u Sloveniji još uvijek nije u potpunosti nastanjeno i širenje se nastavlja. Stoga se očekuje kontinuirano širenje jelena običnog, imajući na umu da brzina ovisi o načinima upravljanja prostorom. Stanje je slično i u većini drugih europskih zemalja. Još je važnije poznavati utjecaje mjera u današnjem lovstvu i šumarstvu koje, mogu biti prilagođene s ciljem postizanja željenih utjecaja. Neke ustaljene prakse upravljanja često ostvaruju utjecaje suprotne željenima,i u budućnosti bi trebale biti ponovno razmatrane. U budućnosti bi više pozornosti trebalo posvetiti izboru mjesta na kojem bi se postavila hranilišta za jelensku divljač, a na nekim područjima bi se intenzitet prihranjivanja jelenske divljači trebao reducirati. Udio mladih stabala u šumama Slovenije je prenizak; stoga bi ili trebalo proširiti područja obnove šumskih sastojina ili osnovati krmne površine za divljač (remize). Upravljanje odnosima između šume i divljači zahtjeva suradnju djelatnika u lovstvu i djelatnika u šumarstvu. Metoda primijenjena u našem istraživanju također bi mogla biti korištena za poboljšanje bonitiranja lovišta za jelensku divljač, jer su procjene utjecaja pojedinih okolišnih čimbenika na kvalitetu staništa jelena običnog temeljene na kvantitativnoj analizi.

Ključne riječi
jelen obični; kvaliteta staništa; gustoća populacije; lovstvo; šumarstvo; hranidba; Slovenija

Hrčak ID: 181411

URI
https://hrcak.srce.hr/181411

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