APA 6th Edition Kelam, I. (2017). GMO 2.0: novi naziv – stari problem. Socijalna ekologija, 26 (1-2), 45-59. https://doi.org/10.17234/SocEkol.26.1.4
MLA 8th Edition Kelam, Ivica. "GMO 2.0: novi naziv – stari problem." Socijalna ekologija, vol. 26, br. 1-2, 2017, str. 45-59. https://doi.org/10.17234/SocEkol.26.1.4. Citirano 11.07.2020.
Chicago 17th Edition Kelam, Ivica. "GMO 2.0: novi naziv – stari problem." Socijalna ekologija 26, br. 1-2 (2017): 45-59. https://doi.org/10.17234/SocEkol.26.1.4
Harvard Kelam, I. (2017). 'GMO 2.0: novi naziv – stari problem', Socijalna ekologija, 26(1-2), str. 45-59. https://doi.org/10.17234/SocEkol.26.1.4
Vancouver Kelam I. GMO 2.0: novi naziv – stari problem. Socijalna ekologija [Internet]. 2017 [pristupljeno 11.07.2020.];26(1-2):45-59. https://doi.org/10.17234/SocEkol.26.1.4
IEEE I. Kelam, "GMO 2.0: novi naziv – stari problem", Socijalna ekologija, vol.26, br. 1-2, str. 45-59, 2017. [Online]. https://doi.org/10.17234/SocEkol.26.1.4
Sažetak Over the last years, there have been rapid developments in genetic engineering techniques (genetic modification), which allowed for an increase in the ability to make more profound and complex changes in the genetic makeup and metabolic pathways of living organisms. This has led to the emergence of two new fields of genetic engineering that overlap with each other: synthetic biology and, so called, New Plant Breeding Techniques (NPBTs). There is currently a list of seven “new” genetic engineering techniques before the European Commission, which needs to decide whether the products of these techniques, when applied to plants, are covered by the EU laws on GMO. Potential application of GM techniques requires a strict application of precautionary principles and a need for systematic monitoring and evaluation at all stages in compliance with EU Directive 2001/18. Biotechnological industry claims that these are not GMO techniques according to current legal definition of GMOs, but rather that they are made using the techniques exempted from such coverage, or that the final product, even if genetic engineering was used at some point during its production, does not contain GM material and is therefore no longer a GMO. The European Commission is currently working on the legal interpretation, as are many lawyers from industry and civil society. It is important to be aware, both in terms of legal interpretation and of risks, that some of these techniques may also be used in combination with each other, or that the same technique may be used several times over in order to achieve the intended effect.
This paper looks at these seven techniques from the scientific rather than the legal perspective, with the aim to better understand the techniques and inherent risks associated with them. Whilst examining the likely unintended effects it has become evident that all of the techniques claiming great precision are also found to have offtarget effects with unpredictable consequences. In fact, so called precision is actually a very imprecise notion and does not equate to predictability. The expected contribution of the paper goes toward recognizing and highlighting the fact that the new GM techniques are guided by private interests and protected by patents, and can not be a solution for the future of agriculture.