hrcak mascot   Srce   HID

Izvorni znanstveni članak
https://doi.org/10.15644/asc52/1/3

Prevalencija hipodoncije u uzorku španjolskih stomatoloških pacijenata

Rebeca Ayala Sola ; Student magistarskog studija – Zavod za ortodonciju Sveučilišta Alfonsa X. El Sabija, Madrid, Španjolska
Pablo Ayala Sola ; Specijalizant oralne i maksilofacijalne kirurgije – Complejo hospitalario de Navarra, Pamplona, Španjolska
Javier De La Cruz Pérez ; Zavod za ortodonciju Sveučilišta Alfonsa X. El Sabija Madrid, Španjolska
Iván Nieto Sánchez ; Zavod za ortodonciju Sveučilišta Alfonsa X. El Sabija Madrid, Španjolska
Inés Díaz Renovales ; Zavod za ortodonciju Sveučilišta Alfonsa X. El Sabija Madrid, Španjolska

Puni tekst: hrvatski, pdf (257 KB) str. 18-23 preuzimanja: 93* citiraj
APA 6th Edition
Ayala Sola, R., Ayala Sola, P., De La Cruz Pérez, J., Nieto Sánchez, I. i Díaz Renovales, I. (2018). Prevalencija hipodoncije u uzorku španjolskih stomatoloških pacijenata. Acta stomatologica Croatica, 52 (1), 18-23. https://doi.org/10.15644/asc52/1/3
MLA 8th Edition
Ayala Sola, Rebeca, et al. "Prevalencija hipodoncije u uzorku španjolskih stomatoloških pacijenata." Acta stomatologica Croatica, vol. 52, br. 1, 2018, str. 18-23. https://doi.org/10.15644/asc52/1/3. Citirano 28.11.2020.
Chicago 17th Edition
Ayala Sola, Rebeca, Pablo Ayala Sola, Javier De La Cruz Pérez, Iván Nieto Sánchez i Inés Díaz Renovales. "Prevalencija hipodoncije u uzorku španjolskih stomatoloških pacijenata." Acta stomatologica Croatica 52, br. 1 (2018): 18-23. https://doi.org/10.15644/asc52/1/3
Harvard
Ayala Sola, R., et al. (2018). 'Prevalencija hipodoncije u uzorku španjolskih stomatoloških pacijenata', Acta stomatologica Croatica, 52(1), str. 18-23. https://doi.org/10.15644/asc52/1/3
Vancouver
Ayala Sola R, Ayala Sola P, De La Cruz Pérez J, Nieto Sánchez I, Díaz Renovales I. Prevalencija hipodoncije u uzorku španjolskih stomatoloških pacijenata. Acta stomatologica Croatica [Internet]. 2018 [pristupljeno 28.11.2020.];52(1):18-23. https://doi.org/10.15644/asc52/1/3
IEEE
R. Ayala Sola, P. Ayala Sola, J. De La Cruz Pérez, I. Nieto Sánchez i I. Díaz Renovales, "Prevalencija hipodoncije u uzorku španjolskih stomatoloških pacijenata", Acta stomatologica Croatica, vol.52, br. 1, str. 18-23, 2018. [Online]. https://doi.org/10.15644/asc52/1/3
Puni tekst: engleski, pdf (257 KB) str. 18-23 preuzimanja: 101* citiraj
APA 6th Edition
Ayala Sola, R., Ayala Sola, P., De La Cruz Pérez, J., Nieto Sánchez, I. i Díaz Renovales, I. (2018). Prevalence of Hypodontia in a Sample of Spanish Dental Patients. Acta stomatologica Croatica, 52 (1), 18-23. https://doi.org/10.15644/asc52/1/3
MLA 8th Edition
Ayala Sola, Rebeca, et al. "Prevalence of Hypodontia in a Sample of Spanish Dental Patients." Acta stomatologica Croatica, vol. 52, br. 1, 2018, str. 18-23. https://doi.org/10.15644/asc52/1/3. Citirano 28.11.2020.
Chicago 17th Edition
Ayala Sola, Rebeca, Pablo Ayala Sola, Javier De La Cruz Pérez, Iván Nieto Sánchez i Inés Díaz Renovales. "Prevalence of Hypodontia in a Sample of Spanish Dental Patients." Acta stomatologica Croatica 52, br. 1 (2018): 18-23. https://doi.org/10.15644/asc52/1/3
Harvard
Ayala Sola, R., et al. (2018). 'Prevalence of Hypodontia in a Sample of Spanish Dental Patients', Acta stomatologica Croatica, 52(1), str. 18-23. https://doi.org/10.15644/asc52/1/3
Vancouver
Ayala Sola R, Ayala Sola P, De La Cruz Pérez J, Nieto Sánchez I, Díaz Renovales I. Prevalence of Hypodontia in a Sample of Spanish Dental Patients. Acta stomatologica Croatica [Internet]. 2018 [pristupljeno 28.11.2020.];52(1):18-23. https://doi.org/10.15644/asc52/1/3
IEEE
R. Ayala Sola, P. Ayala Sola, J. De La Cruz Pérez, I. Nieto Sánchez i I. Díaz Renovales, "Prevalence of Hypodontia in a Sample of Spanish Dental Patients", Acta stomatologica Croatica, vol.52, br. 1, str. 18-23, 2018. [Online]. https://doi.org/10.15644/asc52/1/3

Rad u XML formatu

Sažetak
Svrha rada: Ovim retrospektivnim istraživanjem željela se procijeniti prevalencija hipodoncije u uzorku stomatoloških pacijenata u dobi između sedam i jedanaest godina na Sveučilištu Alfonsa X. Mudroga (El Sabio) u Madridu (Španjolska). Materijali i metode: Broj slučajeva s hipodoncijom i najčešće zahvaćeni zubi analizirani su na temelju 2500 panoramskih snimaka na slučajnom uzorku stomatoloških pacijenata koji se sastojao od 1235 ispitanica i 1265 ispitanika. Bili su podijeljeni prema dobi, vrsti hipodoncije (nedostatak jednog ili više zuba), strani gdje se nalazi te kvadrantu u gornjoj ili u donjoj čeljusti. Hi-kvadrat test (P < 0,05) korišten je za usporedbu razlika u agenezi kod muškaraca i žena. Rezultati: Uzorak od 2500 uključenih pacijenata činilo je 1235 ispitanica – od kojih 41 s hipodoncijom (3,31 %) i 1265 ispitanika – kod njih 46 nedostajao je barem jedan zubni zametak (3,63 %). Između spolova nije bilo statistički značajne razlike u hipodonciji (p > 0,05). Zaključak: Postotak ageneze zuba kod 2500 uključenih pacijenata iznosio je 3,48 %.

Ključne riječi
anodoncija; hipodoncija; denticija; prirođene anomalije

Hrčak ID: 195381

URI
https://hrcak.srce.hr/195381

▼ Article Information



Introduction

Hypodontia is a congenital absence of teeth or congenital dental aplasia. It is one of the most common dental anomalies, which can adversely affect both aesthetics and function. It is one of the results of alterations during the early stages of development (1).

The etiology of hypodontia is multifactorial. The most supported theory suggests a polygenic mode of inheritance, with genes and environmental factors that exert some influence on the phenotypic expression of the genes involved (2).

The hypodontia, in our study, was evaluated from panoramic radiographs as in many other studies (3, 4).

It can be said that there is great variability in the figures obtained regarding the percentage of prevalence of hypodontia by different authors ranged from 4.28% to 8.5% (5-7).

The most frequently affected teeth are the second lower premolars, followed by the upper lateral incisors or the upper second premolars (8).

Based on gender, hypodontia is more frequent in women (9, 10).

This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of hypodontia in a sample of children aged 7–11 at the University Alfonso X el Sabio (Madrid).

Materials and methods

The main objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate the prevalence of hypodontia in 2500 children between seven and eleven years of age, which included 500 seven-year-old patients, out of which 247 were females and 253 males; 500 eight-year-old patients, out of which 242 were females and 258 males; 500 nine-year-old patients, 232 of whom were females and 268 males; 500 ten-year-old patients, out of which 249 were females and 251 males; and finally 500 eleven-year-old patients, of which 265 were females and 235 males.

The panoramic radiographs which were less than 10 years old were randomly evaluated according to the following criteria:

The following were the inclusion criteria: patients born between the years 2004–2009, current patients of the university clinic of the Alfonso X El Sabio University who were born between 2014–2016, patients with panoramic radiography performed at the Alfonso X El Sabio University, and patients with no history of extractions because of decay or dental trauma.

The following were the exclusion criteria: patients with craniofacial syndromes or developmental disorders, patients with a history of extractions according to dental records, patients without panoramic x-ray taken at Alfonso X El Sabio University, and radiographs in poor condition.

The study evaluated the teeth, the maxilla, the side and the gender where agenesis is more prevalent among the studied patients aged seven to eleven. The differences in the proportions were analyzed in contingency tables by means of the χ2 statistics, or the Fisher's exact test. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS software for Windows (version 20; IBM, Armonk, NY).

The study was performed at the university clinic of the University Alfonso X El Sabio located in Madrid.

X-rays were evaluated by the same operator (RAS). No ethical approval was considered to be necessary because of the nature of the study.

Results

The sample of 2500 patients studied consisted of 1235 females, out of which 41 presented hypodontia (3.31%) and 1265 males, out of which 46 had at least a dental agenesis (3.63%).

There was no significant difference in proportion of hypodontia between males and females (p> 0.05).

40 patients (1. 6%) had agenesis on the upper quadrants, 39 (1. 56%) on the lower and 9 (0.36%) on both; no differences were found between upper and lower (p> 0.05); there was a higher proportion of hypodontia in only one jaw than in both jaws (p<0.0001).

56 patients (2.24%) had unilateral hypodontia and 43 of them had (1.72%) bilateral, but the difference was not significant (p>0.05) (Figure 1-5{ label needed for fig[@id='f2'] }{ label needed for fig[@id='f3'] }{ label needed for fig[@id='f4'] }{ label needed for fig[@id='f5'] }).

Figure 1 Percentages of hypodontia in men and women.
ASC_52(1)_18-23-f1
{ label needed for fig[@id='f2'] }
Figure 2 Percentages of bilateral and unilateral hypodontia in women and men.
ASC_52(1)_18-23-f2
{ label needed for fig[@id='f3'] }
Figure 3 Total hypodontia percentage of the 2500 patients studied.
ASC_52(1)_18-23-f3
{ label needed for fig[@id='f4'] }
Figure 4 Percentage of single and multiple hypodontia in both women and men.
ASC_52(1)_18-23-f4
{ label needed for fig[@id='f5'] }
Figure 5 Percentages of hypodontia per piece found in the patients studied.
ASC_52(1)_18-23-f5

48 (1.92%) patients had single agenesis, whereas 40 (1.6%) had multiple agenesis. Again, the difference was not significant (p>0.05).

Table 1 shows that the teeth more affected by agenesis were lower second premolars, followed by upper lateral incisor.

Table 1 Prevalence of dental agenesis per tooth
ToothDental agenesis%
1700
1600
15160.64
1410.04
1300
12200.8
1110.04
2100.04
22200,8
2300
2410.08
25150.6
2600
2700
3700
3600
35291.16
3420.08
3310.04
3250.2
3130.12
4130.12
4230.12
4310,04
4420.08
45200.8
4600
4700

No hypodontia of the upper and lower first molars, upper and lower second molars, and lower canines has been found.

In this study, no dental agenesis was found in temporary dentition.

Discussion

Hypodontia is the object of study in many universities and in many specialized clinics, since it is a very frequent anomaly in humans.

This study has some limitations, since we didn’t consider the ethnicity of each patient and the fact is that many articles found in the literature compare the difference in prevalence of hypodontia between races (11).

In our study, syndromic patients were also ruled out; hence we did not obtain the knowledge of hypodontia’s prevalence in them, which is an interesting issue for future research (12).

We did not take into account the prevalence of hypodontia in the third molars, mainly because of patients’ age; the prevalence of hypodontia excluding third molars was 6.2% (women 8% and men 4.2%) according to Abed Al Jawad (13) and in another study, the prevalence was 9.7% (14). Both are higher than our results, which showed a prevalence of 3.48%, being 3.63% in males and 3.31% in females, also excluding third molars.

In other studies found in the literature, hypodontia is more frequent in women, although the differences found by gender are not significant (15, 16).

Nevertheless, in our study, there were no significant differences in the hypodontia between men and women.

Observations from literature show that in the upper arch the teeth that have the highest percentage of hypodontia have been the lateral incisors, followed by the second premolars. In the lower arch, it is the second premolars, followed by lateral incisors, in contrast to what occurred in the upper arch (17). This is completely in accordance with the results of our study.

In general, according to different authors (18-20), the most frequently affected teeth are the second lower premolars, followed by the upper lateral incisors and the second upper premolars. Another study shows a greater absence of lower lateral incisors and lower second premolars (21).

Some of the percentages found in the literature on dental agenesis are: second lower left premolar (5.9%), second lower right premolar (5.1%), upper left lateral incisor (4.0%), second upper right premolar (3.1%), and second upper left premolar (3%) (22). Other percentages are: lower second premolar (20.7%) and upper second premolar (10.2%) (23).

The available literature shows that the number of hypodontia in the upper arch (5.3%) was higher than that in the lower one (3.5%) (24).

In some previous studies, a greater number of bilateral hypodontia (68.9%) than unilateral hypodontia (31.1%) has been observed (25-27). It is in contrast to what happened in our study, where there was a higher prevalence of unilateral hypodontia than bilateral hypodontia in men and women.

In our study, there was 54% of hypodontia in the left side and 46% in the right side; we found 45.7% of single hypodontia and 54.3% of multiple hypodontia, whereas in other studies there has been a greater number of hypodontia on the right side than on the left side (28) and more single hypodontia than multiple ones (11).

Other studies refer to oligodontia (6 or more missing pieces) observed in 0.8 and 1.4% of patients (29, 30). In our study, only 0.04% of patients had at least 6 missing pieces.

Conclusions

  1. The percentage of total agenesis of 2500 patients studied was 3.48%.

  2. In our sample, there was a greater number of hypodontia in males (3'63%) studied than in females (3’31%), except for eight-year-old patients and ten year-old- patients who presented a higher percentage of hypodontia in females than in males. However, there was no significant difference in the hypodontia between men and women (x2=0.25, df=1, p>0.05, n=2.500).

  3. Excluding third molars, the tooth more affected by agenesis in our sample was the second highest premolar tooth (34'50%), followed by the upper lateral incisor (28'16%), and the second superior premolar (21'12%). The least frequent absences were the lower lateral incisor (7'04%), the lower central incisor (4'22%), the upper central incisor (1'40%), the upper canine (1'40%), the first premolar inferior 1 '40%), and superior premolar (0'70%).

Notes

[1] Conflicts of interest None declared

References

1 

Vahid R. Congenitally missing teeth (hypodontia): A review of the literature concerning the etiology, prevalence, risk factors, patterns and treatment. Dent Res J (Isfahan). 2015 Jan-Feb;12(1):1–13. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1735-3327.150286 PubMed: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25709668

2 

Varela M, Arrieta P, Ventureira C. Non-syndromic concomitant hypodontia and supernumerary teeth in an orthodontic population. Eur J Orthod. 2009 Dec;31(6):632–7. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ejo/cjp046 PubMed: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19535605

3 

Citak M, Cakici EB, Benkli YA, Cakici F, Bektas B, Buyuk SK. Dental anomalies in an orthodontic patient population with maxillary lateral incisor agenesis. Dental Press J Orthod. 2016 Nov-Dec;21(6):98–102. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/2177-6709.21.6.098-102.oar PubMed: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28125145

4 

Al-Amiri A, Tabbaa S, Preston CB, Al-Jewair T. The prevalence of dental anoma- lies in orthodontic patients at the State University of New York at Buffalo. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2013 May 1;14(3):518–23. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1354 PubMed: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24171999

5 

Gomes RR, Calaça da Fonseca J, Lílian M, Faber J, Acevedo A. Prevalence of hypodontia in orthodontic patients in Brasilia, Brazil. Eur J Orthod. 2010 Jun;32(3):302–6. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ejo/cjp107 PubMed: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19837747

6 

Dang HQ, Constantine S, Anderson PJ. The prevalence of dental anomalies in an Australian population. Aust Dent J. 2017 Jun;62(2):161–4. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/adj.12443 PubMed: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27471093

7 

Endo T, Ozoe R, Kubota M, Akiyama M, Shimooka S. A survey of hypodontia in Japanese orthodontic patients. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2006 Jan;129(1):29–35. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajodo.2004.09.024 PubMed: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16443475

8 

Choi SJ, Lee JW, Song JH. Dental anomaly patterns associated with tooth agenesis. Acta Odontol Scand. 2017 Apr;75(3):161–5. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00016357.2016.1273385 PubMed: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28121195

9 

Sajjad A, Sajjad SS, Husain N, Al-Enezi AM. A retrospective cross-sectional study on the prevalence of hypodontia in a target population of Al-Jouf Province, Saudi Arabia. Contemp Clin Dent. 2016 Oct-Dec;7(4):500–5. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0976-237X.194101 PubMed: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27994418

10 

Celikoglu M, Kazanci F, Miloglu O, Oztek O, Kamak H, Ceylan I. Frequency and characteristics of tooth agenesis among an orthodontic patient population. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2010 Sep 1;15(5):e797–801. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4317/medoral.15.e797 PubMed: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20383097

11 

Medina AC. Radiographic study of prevalence and distribution of hypodontia in a pediatric orthodontic population in Venezuela. Pediatr Dent. 2012 Mar-Apr;34(2):113–6. PubMed: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22583882

12 

Valid R, Hamid R. Meta-analysis and systematic review of the number of non- syndromic congenitally missing permanent teeth per affected individual and its in- fluencing factors. Eur J Dent. 2016;38(2):170–7. PubMed: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27095891

13 

Abed Al Jawad FH, Al Yafei H, Al Sheeb M, Al Emadi B, Al Hashimi N. Hypodontia prevalence and distribution pattern in a group of Qatari orthodontic and pediatric patients: A retrospective study. Eur J Dent. 2015 Apr-Jun;9(2):267–71. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1305-7456.156850 PubMed: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26038662

14 

Syed M. Yassin. Prevalence and distribution of selected dental anomalies among saudi children in Abha, Saudi Arabia. J Clin Exp Dent. 2016 Dec 1;8(5):e485–90. PubMed: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27957258

15 

Rakhshan V. Meta-Analysis of observational studies on the most commonly missing permanent dentition (excluding the third molars) in non-syndromic dental patients or randomly-selected subjects, and the factors affecting the observed rates. J Clin Pediatr Dent. 2015 Spring;39(3):198–207. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17796/1053-4628-39.3.198 PubMed: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26208062

16 

Berna G, Melih M, Betül K. Prevalence and characteristics of non‐syndromic hypodontia among Turkish orthodontic patient population. J Int Soc Prev Community Dent. 2015 May-Jun;5(3):170–5. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2231-0762.159952 PubMed: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26236675

17 

Hashim HA, Al-Said S. The prevalence and distribution of hypodontia in a sample of Qatari patients. J Orthod Sci. 2016 Jan-Mar;5(1):1–6. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2278-0203.176651 PubMed: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26998470

18 

Sisman Y, Uysal T, Gelgor IE. Hypodontia. Does the prevalence and distribution pattern differ in orthodontic patients? Eur J Dent. 2007 Jul;1(3):167–73. PubMed: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19212561

19 

Hassan DA, Abuaffan AH, Hashim HA. Prevalence of hypodontia in a sample of Sudanese orthodontic patients. J Orthod Sci. 2014 Jul;3(3):63–7. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2278-0203.137683 PubMed: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25143929

20 

Aktan A, Kara I, Şener İ, Bereket C, Ay S, Çiftçi M. Radiographic study of tooth agenesis in the Turkish population. Oral Radiol. 2010;26(2):95–100. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11282-010-0049-2

21 

Chung CJ, Han JH, Kim KH. The pattern and prevalence of hypodontia in Koreans. Oral Dis. 2008 Oct;14(7):620–5. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1601-0825.2007.01434.x PubMed: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18248591

22 

Behr M, Proff P, Leitzmann M, Pretzel M, Handel G, Schmalz G, et al. Survey of congenitally missing teeth in orthodontic patients in Eastern Bavaria. Eur J Orthod. 2011 Feb;33(1):32–6. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ejo/cjq021 PubMed: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20660130

23 

Gokkaya B, Kargul B. Prevalence and pattern of non-syndromic hypodontia in a group of Turkish children. Acta Stomatol Croat. 2016 Mar;50(1):58–64. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15644/asc50/1/8 PubMed: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27688427

24 

Amini F, Rakhshan V, Babaei P. Prevalence and pattern of hypodontia in the permanent dentition of 3374 Iranian orthodontic patients. Dent Res J (Isfahan). 2012 May;9(3):245–50. PubMed: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23087726

25 

Andersson EM, Axelsson S, Austeng ME, Øverland B, Valen IE, Jensen TA, et al. Bilateral hypodontia is more common than unilateral hypodontia in children with Down syndrome: a prospective population-based study. Eur J Orthod. 2014 Aug;36(4):414–8. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ejo/cjt063 PubMed: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24014738

26 

Antonarakis GS, Suri S. Prevalence and patterns of permanent tooth agenesis in patients with nonsyndromic Pierre Robin sequence. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2014 Apr;145(4):452–60. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajodo.2013.11.021 PubMed: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24703283

27 

Rølling S, Poulsen S. Agenesis of permanent teeth in 8138 Danish school-children: prevalence and intraoral distribution according to gender. Int J Paediatr Dent. 2009;19(3):172–5. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-263X.2008.00958.x PubMed: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19207735

28 

Tan SP, van Wijk AJ, Prahl-Andersen B. Severe hypodontia: identifying patterns of human tooth agenesis. Eur J Orthod. 2011 Apr;33(2):150–4. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ejo/cjq046 PubMed: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20660128

29 

Laganà G, Venza N, Borzabadi-Farahani A, Fabi F, Danesi C, Cozza P. Dental anomalies: prevalence and associations between them in a large sample of non-orthodontic subjects, a cross-sectional study. BMC Oral Health. 2017;17(1):62. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12903-017-0352-y PubMed: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28284207

30 

Goya HA, Tanaka S, Maeda T, Akimoto Y. An orthopantomographic study of hypodontia in permanent teeth of Japanese pediatric patients. J Oral Sci. 2008 Jun;50(2):143–50. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2334/josnusd.50.143 PubMed: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18587203


This display is generated from NISO JATS XML with jats-html.xsl. The XSLT engine is libxslt.

[engleski]

Posjeta: 367 *