APA 6th Edition Pavić, Ž. (1999). Upravni aspekti razvoja grada. Hrvatska i komparativna javna uprava, 1 (2), 215-224. Preuzeto s https://hrcak.srce.hr/197716
MLA 8th Edition Pavić, Željko. "Upravni aspekti razvoja grada." Hrvatska i komparativna javna uprava, vol. 1, br. 2, 1999, str. 215-224. https://hrcak.srce.hr/197716. Citirano 16.02.2020.
Chicago 17th Edition Pavić, Željko. "Upravni aspekti razvoja grada." Hrvatska i komparativna javna uprava 1, br. 2 (1999): 215-224. https://hrcak.srce.hr/197716
Harvard Pavić, Ž. (1999). 'Upravni aspekti razvoja grada', Hrvatska i komparativna javna uprava, 1(2), str. 215-224. Preuzeto s: https://hrcak.srce.hr/197716 (Datum pristupa: 16.02.2020.)
Vancouver Pavić Ž. Upravni aspekti razvoja grada. Hrvatska i komparativna javna uprava [Internet]. 1999 [pristupljeno 16.02.2020.];1(2):215-224. Dostupno na: https://hrcak.srce.hr/197716
IEEE Ž. Pavić, "Upravni aspekti razvoja grada", Hrvatska i komparativna javna uprava, vol.1, br. 2, str. 215-224, 1999. [Online]. Dostupno na: https://hrcak.srce.hr/197716. [Citirano: 16.02.2020.]
Sažetak Social character of a city is defìned by the three principal dimensions-political, economic and communal. In the initial phase of proto-urbanization all the three dimensions are still not separated. However, the vertical diferentiation which takes place in a city gradually shifts the center of gravity towards a political dimension, which is particularly not able with the towns of a type city-state (for instance Greek poleis, Rome). Communal problems are being solved by the political - technical methods so that the communal dimension of an Antique city is treated as an integral part of the political sphere.
In the phase of localisation political power is concentrated on the level of central govemment. Local communities now become the branches of the central state authority or a counterweight, a limiting factor, to the intentions of the central govemment. In such a circumstances come to existence the free cities respective the cities with a privilege, which were excluded from existant feudal hierarchy. In that phase the center of gravity is being shifted towards the economic dimension. The solutions in the communal sector were most often found in the inspection and the police measures of the city authorities, i.e, in an imposition of maintatinance of a communal order by coercive measures.
The turning point in the development of cities makes the industrial revolution and the new type of urbanisation i.e. the industrial urbanisation. Communal dimension comes to the front plan and becomes the main problem of managing the dense populated cities. There is a need to ensure a suitable political oversight of the city over the communal sector as well as a possibility of influence of the citisens - consumers into this sector. Thus the communal services are normally put under the separate legal regime. The consumer´s movement and the vanous forms of consumer´s organisations occur with the purpose to protect citizens in their relations to the providers of communal services.
In the phase of metropolitanisation a significance of communal problematics is emphasised since it has to encompass not only a large area of a metropolitan city but also the larger areas which are functionally connected to the city. The system of managing communal services spreads to the area of the city border so that it might be included into the influence, oversight and possible future closer ties to the central city. Various solutions hsve been applied to that purpose - from meta-territorial authorities of central cities over the area of city border, up to the separately organised bodies for provision of communal services in metropolitan areas (special districts).