Sažetak The childhood leukemias are relatively rare
diseases that collectively represent 35% of all childhood
malignant tumours. The majority of them are acute leukemias
(ALs), whereas less than 5% represent chronic leukemias. In
contrast to adults, the majority of children (75%) suffer from
acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), whereas acute myeloid
leukemia (AML) represents <20% of childhood leukemias.
Since the 1960s, the prognosis for children with acute
leukaemia has dramatically improved. Disease that were uniformly
lethal are now curable and most patients have prolonged
disease-free survival. This article reviews the childhood
leukemias with respect to classification, pathophysiology,
clinical presentation, prognosis and treatment strategies.