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Importance of clinical applications of thymol

Indira Mujezinović ; Veterinarski fakultet, Univerzitet u Sarajevu, Sarajevo, Bosna i Hercegovina
Ahmed Smajlović ; Veterinarski fakultet, Univerzitet u Sarajevu, Sarajevo, Bosna i Hercegovina
Almedina Zuko ; Veterinarski fakultet, Univerzitet u Sarajevu, Sarajevo, Bosna i Hercegovina
Behija Dukić ; Veterinarski fakultet, Univerzitet u Sarajevu, Sarajevo, Bosna i Hercegovina
Vitomir Ćupić ; Fakultet veterinarske medicine Univerzitet u Beogradu, Beograd, Srbija

Puni tekst: hrvatski, pdf (325 KB) str. 123-129 preuzimanja: 342* citiraj
APA 6th Edition
Mujezinović, I., Smajlović, A., Zuko, A., Dukić, B. i Ćupić, V. (2018). Značenje kliničke primjene timola . Veterinarska stanica, 49 (2), 123-129. Preuzeto s
MLA 8th Edition
Mujezinović, Indira, et al. "Značenje kliničke primjene timola ." Veterinarska stanica, vol. 49, br. 2, 2018, str. 123-129. Citirano 24.11.2020.
Chicago 17th Edition
Mujezinović, Indira, Ahmed Smajlović, Almedina Zuko, Behija Dukić i Vitomir Ćupić. "Značenje kliničke primjene timola ." Veterinarska stanica 49, br. 2 (2018): 123-129.
Mujezinović, I., et al. (2018). 'Značenje kliničke primjene timola ', Veterinarska stanica, 49(2), str. 123-129. Preuzeto s: (Datum pristupa: 24.11.2020.)
Mujezinović I, Smajlović A, Zuko A, Dukić B, Ćupić V. Značenje kliničke primjene timola . Veterinarska stanica [Internet]. 2018 [pristupljeno 24.11.2020.];49(2):123-129. Dostupno na:
I. Mujezinović, A. Smajlović, A. Zuko, B. Dukić i V. Ćupić, "Značenje kliničke primjene timola ", Veterinarska stanica, vol.49, br. 2, str. 123-129, 2018. [Online]. Dostupno na: [Citirano: 24.11.2020.]

Thymol (2-isopropyl-5-methylphenol) is a natural compound from a group of monotherpentinic phenols. These phenols are present in the essential oils of many plants of the Labiateae family, which are used in the folk medicine for centuries. During this long-term period, it is established that thymol has, together with antiseptic and spasmolytic, also antihelmintic action. Thymol antimicrobial spectrum is wide because it acts on Gram-positive and Gram- negative bacteria, fungi and yeasts. As a natural alternative to antibiotics, unlike many traditional antibiotics with bactericidal action, thymol attacks bacterial organelles, especially respiratory chain enzymes, which are linked to mesosomes of the cell membranes, which leads to complete destruction of pathogenic aerobic bacteria results due to a blockage of the cellular respiration and death of the bacteria. During numerous in vitro and in vivo studies conducted with thymol, it has been proved that thymol has antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, spasmolytic and anthelmintic effects. It has a wide spectrum of effects against both, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and molds. Nowadays, thymol is used successfully both in human and in veterinary medicine. In veterinary practice, it is used with different species of animals in the treatment of respiratory diseases. Also, it is widely used in beekeeping as a good acaricide at very low concentrations. The exact mechanism of acaridical action of thymol is still not sufficiently known. General idea is that timol acaricidal action is mediated via GABA (A) receptor-R, leading to a neurotoxic effect on the octopaminergic nerves of ticks and insects. Most likely, the death of the ticks is the result of their choking. Thymol is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal system, metabolized by oxidation and glucuronidation, and rapidly (in the first 24 hours of application)
excreted via urine, and to a small extent in the unchanged and in large part in the form of glucuronides and / or conjugated sulphates. Additionally, it was found that thymol is quickly reabsorbed from the site of administration, promptly metabolized and rapidly excreted from the organism. Thymol is a natural and safe active substance for which MRL is not established, and it is listed in Annex II of the List of substances without withdrawal period. During the investigation of thymol residues in some bee products (honey and wax) it was found that treatments with this natural substance can be considered to be good alternatives for synthetic acaricides, especially because they do not represent a sanitary risk. Thymol has been evaluated 1992 by the Committee of Expert on Flavorings Substances of the Council of Europe. Thymol is listed among the substances that are permitted as flavouring agents. An upper limit for inclusion of thymol in food has been established at 50 mg/kg and in beverages at 10 mg/kg. During clinical trials of the various medicinal preparations containing thymol on bee-keeping communities, at the established therapeutic concentrations, no adverse effects have been observed. Thymol did not show any theratogenic, mutagenic or carcinogenic effects.

Ključne riječi
thymol; monoterpene phenols; Varroa destructor; honeybee colonies

Hrčak ID: 223028



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