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Original scientific paper

Limnological Study of River Soan (Punjab), Pakistan

Furhan Iqbal
Muhammad Ali
Nazia Kanwal

Fulltext: english, pdf (151 KB) pages 65-73 downloads: 594* cite
APA 6th Edition
Iqbal, F., Ali, M. & Kanwal, N. (2006). Limnological Study of River Soan (Punjab), Pakistan. Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus, 71 (2), 65-73. Retrieved from
MLA 8th Edition
Iqbal, Furhan, et al. "Limnological Study of River Soan (Punjab), Pakistan." Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus, vol. 71, no. 2, 2006, pp. 65-73. Accessed 7 Dec. 2021.
Chicago 17th Edition
Iqbal, Furhan, Muhammad Ali and Nazia Kanwal. "Limnological Study of River Soan (Punjab), Pakistan." Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus 71, no. 2 (2006): 65-73.
Iqbal, F., Ali, M., and Kanwal, N. (2006). 'Limnological Study of River Soan (Punjab), Pakistan', Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus, 71(2), pp. 65-73. Available at: (Accessed 07 December 2021)
Iqbal F, Ali M, Kanwal N. Limnological Study of River Soan (Punjab), Pakistan. Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus [Internet]. 2006 [cited 2021 December 07];71(2):65-73. Available from:
F. Iqbal, M. Ali and N. Kanwal, "Limnological Study of River Soan (Punjab), Pakistan", Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus, vol.71, no. 2, pp. 65-73, 2006. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 07 December 2021]

River Soan is one of the important aquatic systems of the Punjab province in Pakistan and flows into Indus River near Kalla Bagh (District Mianwali). In order to measure the quality of water and to evaluate planktonic community, an integrated monitoring system was applied from May to December 2001. During the study period total of 202 genera were observed of which 134 were of phytoplankton present in various phylums including Cyanophyta (22), Cyarophyta (7), Xanthophyta (5), Bacillariophyta (22), Euglenophyta (5), Chlorophyta (62), Chrysophyta (8), Pyrrophyta (1) and Cphryrotophyta (2). 53 genera of zooplankton were observed including Protozoa (33), Rotifera (8), Cladocera (7), Copepoda (4) and Aquatic insecta (1). In addition to phyto and zooplankton 3 genera of Charophyta and 11 genera of Macrophyta were observed. Diversity index of phytoplankton ranged from 4.6 to 13.5 and of zooplankton from 1.94 to 5.90. Water samples were collected on monthly basis for estimation of various physical and chemical water quality parameters i.e., water temperature (9-31 0C), light penetration (1.2-22.3 cm), viscosity (0.8570-1.0572 mNS m-2), conductivity (7-19 mv), surface tension (69.28-72.63 dynes cm-1), density (0.980-1.022 mg l-1), specifi c gravity (0.796-1.025), boiling point (95-98 0C), turbidity (0.02-0.48 mg l-1), pH (8-9), dissolved oxygen (4.6- 9.3 mg l-1), alkalinity (19-36 mg l-1), acidity 1.0-1.8 mg l-1), carbonates (0), bicarbonates (19-36 mg l-1), total solids (0.56-4.24 mg l-1), total dissolved solids (0.53-4.83) and total dissolved volatile solids (0.05-0.29). Among elements, sodium (22.50-168.75 ppm), potassium (3.94-12.31 ppm), calcium (2.75-34.25 ppm), strontium (0.00-0.47 ppm), magnesium (0.00 ppm) and zinc (0.00 ppm) were detected through atomic absorption while seasonal variation in planktonic diversity was analyzed by calculating the frequency of occurrence, relative abundance and diversity index of planktonic life. The overall water quality of the study site remained within safe limits throughout the study period.

physical and chemical parameters; element concentration; plankton diversity; seasonal variation; Soan river; Pakistan

Hrčak ID: 5181


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