Analysis of ground reaction forces in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy during walking
The objective of the current study was to examine the effect of pregnancy during the 2nd and 3rd trimesters on ground reaction forces (GRFs). Twenty-four non-pregnant women and forty-eight pregnant women in the second and third trimesters participated in this cross-sectional study. Qualysis Gait Analysis System was used to analyze peaks and time parameters of GRFs in vertical (Fz), antero-posterior (Fx) and medio-lateral directions (Fy). The results showed that there were no significant differences between non-pregnant and pregnant women in the first peak (Fz1) (p=0.147) and second peak (Fz2) (p=0.125) of vertical GRF, braking force (FxB) (p=0.867) and propulsion force (FxP) (p=0.929), as well as lateral (FxL) (p=0.994) and medial (FxM) GRF (p=0.920). However, there was a significant decrease in the Fz minimum (min) (p=0.008), the difference between the Fz1 and Fz min (p=0.042) and the difference between Fz2 and Fz min (p=0.028). Moreover, there were increases in the time taken to reach the Fz1 (p=0.024), Fz2 (p=0.005), Fz min (p=0.001), FyB (p=0.010), FyP (p=0.001), FxL (p=0.010) and FxM (p=0.011). These findings displayed that the pregnant women assumed flatter pattern of vertical GRF and decreased upward and downward movement of center of gravity. This pattern may help to make the gait smooth and efficient. Increased time to reach peaks of GRFs may be a strategy to maximize balance during pregnancy.
Abu Osman, N. A. and Mat Ghazali, R. (2002) ‘Biomechanical evaluation on gait pattern of pregnant subjects’, Journal of Mechanics in Medicine and Biology, 2(1), pp. 99–116. doi: 10.1142/S0219519402000289.
Aguiar, L. et al. (2015) ‘Comparison between overweight due to pregnancy and due to added weight to simulate body mass distribution in pregnancy’, Gait and Posture, 42(4), pp. 511–517. doi: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2015.07.065.
Andriacchi, T. P., Ogle, J. A. and Galante, J. O. (1977) ‘Walking speed as a basis for normal and abnormal gait measurements’, Journal of Biomechanics, 10(4), pp. 261–268. doi: 10.1016/0021-9290(77)90049-5.
Branco, M. et al. (2013) ‘Kinematic analysis of gait in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy’, Journal of Pregnancy, 2013. doi: 10.1155/2013/718095.
Branco, M. et al. (2015) ‘Three-dimensional kinetic adaptations of gait throughout pregnancy and postpartum.’, Scientifica, 2015(January 2016), p. 580374. doi: 10.1155/2015/580374.
Branco, M., Santos-Rocha, R. and Vieira, F. (2014) ‘Biomechanics of gait during pregnancy’, Scientific World Journal. doi: 10.1155/2014/527940.
Branco M, Santos-Rocha R, Aguiar L, Vieira F, V. A. (2016) ‘Kinetic analysis of gait in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy’, Journal of Mechanics in Medicine and Biology, 16(4). doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/S021951941650055X.
Calguneri, M., Bird, H. A. and Wright, V. (1982) ‘Changes in joint laxity occurring during pregnancy’, Ann Rheum Dis, 41(2), pp. 126–128. doi: 10.1136/ard.41.2.126.
De Castro, M. P. et al. (2014) ‘In-shoe plantar pressures and ground reaction forces during overweight adults’ overground walking’, Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 85(2), pp. 188–197. doi: 10.1080/02701367.2014.893055.
Došla, J. et al. (2013) ‘Comparison of selected characteristics of gait in men and women’, Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 8(2 PROC). doi: 10.4100/jhse.2012.8.Proc2.15.
Dumas, G. A. et al. (1995) ‘Exercise, posture, and back pain during pregnancy. Part 2. Exercise and back pain’, Clinical Biomechanics, 10(2), pp. 104–109. doi: 10.1016/0268-0033(95)92047-P.
Forczek, W. and Staszkiewicz, R. (2012) ‘Changes of kinematic gait parameters due to pregnancy’, Acta of Bioengineering and Biomechanics, 14(4), pp. 113–119. doi: 10.5277/abb120413.
Foti, T., Davids, J. R. and Bagley, A. (2000) ‘A biomechanical analysis of gait during pregnancy’, The Journal of bone and joint surgery, 82(5), pp. 625–32.
Giakas, G. and Baltzopoulos, V. (1997) ‘Time and frequency domain analysis of ground reaction forces during walking: an investigation of variability and symmetry’, Gait & Posture, 5(3), pp. 189–197. doi: 10.1016/S0966-6362(96)01083-1.
Gilleard, W., Crosbie, J. and Smith, R. (2002) ‘Effect of pregnancy on trunk range of motion when sitting and standing.’, Acta obstetricia et gynecologica Scandinavica, 81(11), pp. 1011–20. doi: 10.1034/j.1600-0412.2002.811104.x.
Gimunová, M. et al. (2015) ‘Analysis of ground reaction force in gait during different phases of pregnancy’, Kinesiology, 47(2), pp. 236–241.
Goldberg J, Besser MP, S.-S. L. (2001) ‘Changes in foot function throughout pregnancy’, Obstetrics & Gynecology, 97(4), p. S39.
Gutke, A., Östgaard, H. C. and Öberg, B. (2008) ‘Association between muscle function and low back pain in relation to pregnancy’, Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 40(4), pp. 304–311. doi: 10.2340/16501977-0170.
Hessert, M. J. et al. (2005) ‘Foot pressure distribution during walking in young and old adults’, BMC Geriatrics, 5. doi: 10.1186/1471-2318-5-8.
Hollman, J. H. et al. (2007) ‘Does walking in a virtual environment induce unstable gait?. An examination of vertical ground reaction forces’, Gait and Posture, 26(2), pp. 289–294. doi: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2006.09.075.
Hsiang SM, C. C. (2002) ‘The effect of gait speed and load carrying on the reliability of ground reaction forces.’, Saf Sci, 40(7–8), p. 639–657.
Karadag-Saygi, E., Unlu-Ozkan, F. and Basgul, A. (2010) ‘Plantar pressure and foot pain in the last trimester of pregnancy’, Foot & Ankle International, 31(2), pp. 153–157. doi: 50036168 [pii]r10.3113/FAI.2010.0153.
Krkeljas, Z. (2017) ‘Changes in gait and posture as factors of dynamic stability during walking in pregnancy’, Human Movement Science. doi: 10.1016/j.humov.2017.12.011.
Lymbery, J. K. and Gilleard, W. (2005) ‘The stance phase of walking during late pregnancy: temporospatial and ground reaction force variables.’, Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association, 95(3), pp. 247–253.
McCrory, J. L. et al. (2011) ‘Ground reaction forces during gait in pregnant fallers and non-fallers’, Gait and Posture, 34(4), pp. 524–528. doi: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2011.07.007.
Nyska M , Sofer D , Porat A , Howard CB , Levi A, M. I. (1997) ‘Planter foot pressures in pregnant women.’, Israel Journal of Medical Sciences, 33(2), pp. 139–146.
Perry, J. (1992) Gait Analysis - Normal and Pathological Function, Book by SLACKIncorporated. doi: 10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004.
Ribas, S. Guirro, E. (2007) ‘Analysis of plantar pressure and postural balance during different phases of pregnancy’, Revista Brasileira de Fisioterapia, 35(6 2), pp. 3–8.
Ribeiro, A. P., João, S. M. A. and Sacco, I. C. N. (2013) ‘Static and dynamic biomechanical adaptations of the lower limbs and gait pattern changes during pregnancy’, Women’s health (London, England), 9(1), pp. 99–108. doi: 10.2217/whe.12.59.
Sadeghi, H. (2003) ‘Local or global asymmetry in gait of people without impairments’, Gait and Posture, 17(3), pp. 197–204. doi: 10.1016/S0966-6362(02)00089-9.
Santos MRS, Gil BMC, Marques AS, Boas JPV, da S. J. (2008) ‘Comparative analysis of the ground reaction forces, during the support phase, in a group of pregnant women on their 3rd trimester of pregnancy and in a group pf not pregnant women’, Fisioter. Mov., 21(1), pp. 95–103.
Simoneau G. (2002) Kinesiology of walking. In: Neumann, D.(ed.): kinesiology of the musculoskeletal system:foundation for physical rehabilitation. 1st editio. London: Mosby company.
Takeda K, Junji K, Aya T, Sigeko F, Y. E. (2009) ‘An analysis of gait in the third trimester of pregnancy - Gait analysis of the single support phase in the frontal plane’, International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 107, p. S683. doi: 10.1016/S0020-7292(09)62446-2.
Tranberg R. (2010) Analysis of body motions based on optical markers, Accuracy, error analysis and clinical applications. University of Gothenburg.
Vico Pardo, F. J. et al. (2017) ‘Changes in foot posture during pregnancy and their relation with musculoskeletal pain: A longitudinal cohort study’, Women and Birth. doi: 10.1016/j.wombi.2017.08.114.
Whitcome, K. K., Shapiro, L. J. and Lieberman, D. E. (2007) ‘Fetal load and the evolution of lumbar lordosis in bipedal hominins’, Nature, 450(7172), pp. 1075–1078. doi: 10.1038/nature06342.
White, R. et al. (1999) ‘The variability of force platform data in normal and cerebral palsy’, Clinical Biomechanics, 14, pp. 185–192. doi: 10.1016/S0268-0033(99)80003-5.
Wu, W. et al. (2004) ‘Gait coordination in pregnancy: Transverse pelvic and thoracic rotations and their relative phase’, Clinical Biomechanics, 19(5), pp. 480–488. doi: 10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2004.02.003.
Copyright (c) 2019 Kinesiology
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
At Faculty of Kinesiology we recognize that access to quality research is vital to the scientific community and beyond. Kinesiology is non-profit journal and all costs of publishing and peer review process are covered by the publisher itself or other funding sources like Ministry of Science and Education of the Republic of Croatia. Full text papers are also available free of charge at http://hrcak.srce.hr/kineziologija. There are no restrictions on self archiving of any form of paper (preprint, postprint and publisher's version).
Articles are distributed under the terms of the CC BY - NC 4.0
Kinesiology does not charge any fees to authors to submit or publish articles in our journal.