Establishing frequency speed of kick test classificatory tables in male and female taekwondo athletes


Taekwondo is striking Olympic combat sport where scoring actions are powerful and short-duration techniques, especially kicks. However, there are no many taekwondo-specific physical tests. Recently the frequency speed of kick test (FSKT10s) and its intermittent version (5 x 10s/10s intervals, FSKTmult) has been used to assess physical fitness of taekwondo and athletes, but no classificatory normative table was found for this test. Thus, the aim of present study was to present two normative classificatory tables for the FSKT10s and FSKTmult, one for males and another for females. One hundred fifteen male taekwondo athletes (median (interquartile range) age: 20 (17;27) years; height: 175 (170;182) cm; body mass: 67 (60;78) kg; experience time: 6 (3;10) years) and seventy female taekwondo athletes (median (interquartile range) age: 19 (17;24) years; height: 162 (157;169) cm; body mass: 57 (50;64) kg; experience time: 5 (3;9) years) volunteered to participate in the present study. The skills ranged between 4rdgub and 2rddan. All the participants were evaluated during their competitive period and were familiarized with this test. Five scales were used (“Excellent” (≥95th percentile); “Good” (>75th percentile up to 94th percentile); “Regular” (>25th percentile up to 74th percentile); “Poor” (>6th percentile up to 24th percentile); and “Very poor” (≤5th percentile) after analysis of data distribution to classify FSKT10s and FSKTmult variables. Among male the tests were classified as follow: males - FSKT10s: ‘Excellent’: ≥24; ‘Good’: 22-23; ‘Regular’: 18-21; ‘Poor’: 17; ‘Very poor’: ≤16 kicks and FSKTtotal: ‘Excellent’: ≥108; ‘Good’: 97-107; ‘Regular’: 85-96; ‘Poor’: 80-84; ‘Very poor’: ≤79 kicks; females - FSKT10s: ‘Excellent’: ≥22; ‘Good’: 21; ‘Regular’: 17-20; ‘Poor’: 16; ‘Very poor’: ≤15 kicks and FSKTtotal: ‘Excellent’: ≥97; ‘Good’: 92-96; ‘Regular’: 82-91; ‘Poor’: 73-81; ‘Very poor’: ≤72 kicks. These classificatory tables can help coaches and strength and conditioning professionals to classify performance and monitor the physical fitness of taekwondo athletes in different training processes and during the competitive season.


Araujo, M.P., Nóbrega, A.C.L., Espinosa, G., Hausen, M.R., Castro, R.R.T., Soares, P.P., et al. (2017). Proposal of a new specific cardiopulmonary exercise test for taekwondo athletes. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 31(6), 1525-1535.

Bridge, C.A., Santos, J.F.S., Chaabène, H., Pieter, W., & Franchini E. (2014). Physical and physiological profile of taekwondo athletes. Sports Medicine, 44(6), 713-733.

Campos, F.A.D., Bertuzzi, R., Dourado, A.C., Santos, V.G., & Franchini, E. (2012). Energy demands in taekwondo athletes during combat simulation. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 112(4), 1221-1228.

Girard, O., Mendez-Villanueva, A., & Bishop, D. (2011). Repeated-sprint ability - part I: Factors contributing to fatigue. Sports Medicine, 41(8), 673-694.

Hausen, M., Soares, P.P., Araujo, M.P., Porto, F., Franchini, E., Bridge, C.A., et al. (2017). Physiological responses and external validity of a new setting for taekwondo combat simulation. Plos One, 12, e0171553.

Hoffman, J.R. (2012). Athlete testing and program evaluation. In: Hoffman, J.R. (Ed.), NSCA’s guide to program design (pp. 23-49). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Hopkins, W.G. (2006). A new view of statistics: A scale of magnitude for effect statistics. Retrieved July 5, 2017 from:

Kraemer, W.J., Comstock, B.A., Clark, J.E., & Dunn-Lewis, C. (2012). Athletes needs analysis. In: Hoffman, J.R. (Ed.), NSCA’s guide to program design (pp. 1-21). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Lopes-Silva, J.P., Silva Santos, J.F., Artioli, G.G., Loturco, I., Abbiss, C., & Franchini, E. (2018). Sodium bicarbonate ingestion increases glycolytic contribution and improves performance during simulated taekwondo combat. European Journal of Sport Science. Epub ahead of print.

Lopes-Silva, JP, Silva Santos, JF, Branco, BH, Abad, CC, Oliveira, LF, Loturco, I, et al. (2015). Caffeine ingestion increases estimated glycolytic metabolism during taekwondo combat simulation but does not improve performance or parasympathetic reactivation. Plos One, 10, e0144849.

Pieter, W. (1991). Performance characteristic of elite taekwondo athletes. Korean Journal of Sport Science, 3, 94-117.

Rhea, M., Peterson, M. (2012). Tests, data analysis, and conclusions. In Miller, T. (Ed.), NSCA’s guide to tests and assessments (pp. 1-14). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Rosenthal, R. (1991). Meta-analytic procedures for social research. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Sant’Ana, J., Diefenthaeler, F., Dal Pupo, J., Detanico, D., Guglielmo, L.G.A., & Santos, S.G. (2014). Anaerobic evaluation of taekwondo athletes. International SportMed Journal, 15(4), 492-499.

Sant’Ana, J., Franchini, E., Murias, J., & Diefenthaeler, F. (2018). Validity of a taekwondo specific test to measure VO2peak and the heart rate deflection point. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. Epub ahead of print.

Santos, J.F.S., & Franchini, E. (2018). Frequency speed of kick test performance comparison between female taekwondo athletes. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. Epub ahead of print.

Santos, J.F.S., & Franchini, E. (2016). Is frequency speed of kick test responsive to training? A study with taekwondo athletes. Sport Sciences for Health, 12(3), 377-382.

Santos, J.F.S., Herrera-Valenzuela, T., Mota, G.R., & Franchini, E. (2016). Influence of half-squat intensity and volume on the subsequent countermovement jump and frequency speed of kick test performance taekwondo athletes. Kinesiology, 48(1), 95-102.

Santos, J.F.S., Loturco, I., & Franchini, E. (2018). Relationship between frequency speed of kick test performance, optimal load, and anthropometric variables in black-belt taekwondo athletes. Ido Movement for Culture. Journal of Martial Arts Anthropology, 18(1), 39-44.

Santos, J.F.S., Valenzuela, T.H., & Franchini, E. (2015). Can different conditioning activities and rest intervals affect the acute performance of taekwondo turning kick? Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 29(6), 1640-1647.