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A Co-evolutionary Algorithm-based Enhanced Grey Wolf Optimizer for the Routing of Wireless Sensor Networks
Wireless networks are frequently installed in arduous environments, heightening the importance of their consistent operation. To achieve this, effective strategies must be implemented to extend the lifespan of nodes. Energy-conserving routing protocols have emerged as the most prevalent methodology, as they strive to elongate the network's lifetime while guaranteeing reliable data routing with minimal latency. In this paper, a plethora of studies have been done with the purpose of improving network routing, such as the integration of clustering techniques, heterogeneity, and swarm intelligence-inspired approaches. A comparative investigation was conducted on a variety of swarm-based protocols, including a new coevolutionary binary grey wolf optimizer (Co-BGWO), a BGWO, a binary whale optimization, and a binary Salp swarm algorithm. The objective was to optimize cluster heads (CHs) positions and their number during the initial stage of both two-level and three-level heterogeneous networks. The study concluded that these newly developed protocols are more reliable, stable, and energy-efficient than the standard SEP and EDEEC heterogeneous protocols. Specifically, in 150 m2 area of interest, the Co-BGWO and BGWO protocols of two levels were found the most efficient, with over than 33% increase in remaining energy percentage compared to SEP, and over 24% more than EDEEC in three-level networks.
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