Parameter identification in the mathematical model of glucose and insulin tolerance test - the mathematical markers of diabetes
Glucose tolerance test (GTT) is standard diagnostic procedure that tests the efficiency of blood glucose-lowering hormones (insulin, incretins, leptin). Contrary, insulin tolerance test (ITT) is probing efficiency of blood glucose-rising hormones (glucagon, thyroxine, growth hormone, glucocorticoids, adrenalin, noradrenalin). These two hormone systems together maintain blood glucose levels in a narrow range. Various pathophysiological mechanisms give rise to a reversible condition -- prediabetes which then progresses to an irreversible chronic disease -- diabetes, both marked with deviation of blood glucose levels outside the set range. In diagnostic purpose, the patient is given glucose load, and blood glucose is measured right before and 2 hours after load. Measurements are more frequent after insulin injection (ITT) or if both tests are performed on experimental animals. In this paper we analyse the mathematical model for GTT and ITT. The obtained model function is a useful tool in describing the dynamics of blood glucose changes.
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