COLLABORATORS OF JUSTICE: COMPARATIVE LEGAL SOLUTIONS AND CROATIAN CRIMINAL PROCEDURAL LAW

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.25234/pv/13602

Keywords:

collaborators of justice, crown witness, witness immunity, judicial control, measures of reward

Abstract

This paper analyses the procedural position of “collaborators of justice” – (potential) suspects or defendants who choose to cooperate with the authorities by contributing to the detection and prosecution of other serious crimes and perpetrators, primarily by testifying before the court. The aim of the study is to provide an overview of consensual forms and measures of reward for collaborators of justice in comparative law and then to analyse the legal position of a crown witness and a person granted witness immunity, as “collaborators of justice”, in Croatian criminal procedural law. The study is conducted through a comparative legal perspective and with regard to certain issues that have so far been problematised in the scientific and professional literature and in domestic jurisprudence, and which include: the specific goal of these consensual forms and the application of the principle of proportionality, the discretion of the state attorney and judicial control, the procedural and defence rights, and, finally, victims’ rights. Special attention is given to an analysis of the jurisprudence of the Supreme Court of the Republic of Croatia and its legal standards, particularly concerning certain issues of the legality of the examination of a crown witness, as well as the legality of examination of a person granted witness immunity.

References

Beernaert, M.-A., De l'irrésistible ascension des « repentis » et « collaborateurs de justice » dans le système pénal, Déviance et Société, Vol. 27, No. 1, 2003, pp. 77 – 91.

Beernaert, M-A., « Repentis » ou « collaborateurs de justice » : quelle légitimité dans le système pénal ? » Droit et société, No. 55, 2003/3, pp. 693 – 711.

Bouloc, B., Procédure pénale, Dalloz, Paris, 2012.

Crijns, J.H., Dubelaar, M.J.;, Pitcher, K.M., Collaboration with Justice in the Netherlands, Germany, Italy and Canada, Leiden University, 2017.

Damaška, M., Dokazno pravo u kaznenom postupku: oris novih tendencija, Pravni fakultet u Zagrebu, 2001.

Dervan, L. E., Arriving at a System of Pleas: The History and State of Plea Bargaining, in: A System of Pleas (eds. Edkins, V. A., Redlich, A. D.), Oxford University Press, 2019, pp. 11 – 23.

Đurđević, Z., Procesna jamstva obrane prema suokrivljeniku kao svjedoku optužbe, Hrvatski ljetopis za kazneno pravo i praksu, Vol. 16, No. 2, 2009, pp. 783 – 808.

Fyfe, N., Sheptycki, J., International Trends in the Facilitation of Witness Co-operation in Organized Crime Cases, European Journal of Criminology, Vol. 3, No. 3, 2006, pp. 319 – 355.

Hamdan, S., Absprachen im französischen Strafverfahren?, Nomos, 2018.

Ivičević Karas, E., Burić, Z., Bonačić, M., Neka pitanja usklađenosti hrvatskoga kaznenog procesnog prava s direktivama o pravima obrane – analiza sudske prakse, Hrvatski ljetopis za kaznene znanosti i praksu, Vol. 27, No. 2, 2020, pp. 543 – 569.

Ivičević Karas, E., Consensual Justice in Croatian Criminal Procedural Law: The Need for a Systematic Approach, in „EU 2020 – Lessons from the Past and Solutions for the Future, EU and Comparative Law Issues and Challenges Series (ECLIC) – ISSUE 4, University of Josip Juraj Strossmayer Faculty of Law, Osijek, 2020, pp. 405 – 432.

Ivičević Karas, E., Prilog raspravi o problemu miješanja procesnih uloga u kaznenom postupku, in: Kazneno pravo: sinergija teorije i prakse, Liber amicorum Petar Novoselec (eds. Turković, K., Munivrana Vajda, M., Dragičević Prtenjača, M.), Pravni fakultet Sveučilišta u Zagrebu, Zagreb, 2019, pp. 229 – 243.

Krapac, D., Kazneno procesno pravo Prva knjiga: Institucije, Narodne novine, Zagreb, 2020.

Novosel, D., Posebnosti Zakona o Uredu za suzbijanje korupcije i organiziranog kriminaliteta, Hrvatski ljetopis za kazneno pravo i praksu, Vol. 8, No. 2, 2001, pp. 41 – 83.

Pajčić, M., Ugroženi svjedoci u kaznenom postupku, Hrvatsko udruženje za kaznene znanosti i praksu, Ministarstvo unutarnjih poslova RH, Zagreb, 2006.

Pavišić, B., Komentar Zakona o kaznenom postupku, Templar-book Šmrika, 2015.

Prunner, M., “Gibst du mir, dann geb ich dir“, Öffentliche Sicherheit, No. 7-8, 2017, pp. 80 – 81.

Tak, P. J. P., Deals with Criminals: Supergrasses, Crown Witnesses and Pentiti, European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice, Vol. 5, No. 1, 1997, pp. 2 – 26.

Turner, J. I., Plea Bargaining Across Borders, Wolters Kluwer, 2009.

LIST OF REGULATIONS AND ACTS

Code de procédure pénale, Version en vigueur au 08 décembre 2020, https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/codes/texte_lc/LEGITEXT000006071154/ Accessed 6 December 2020.

Code pénal, Version en vigueur au 08 décembre 2020, https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/codes/texte_lc/LEGITEXT000006070719/ Accessed 8 December 2020.

Decreto - legge 15 gennaio 1991, n.8, convertito, con modificazioni, dalla legge 15 marzo 1991, n.82, come modificata dalla legge 13 febbraio 2001 n. 45, https://www1.interno.gov.it/mininterno/export/sites/default/it/assets/files/23/0479_Decreto-Legge_15_gennaio_1991x_convertito_nella_L._15_marzo_1991x_n._82.pdf Accessed 17 December 2020.

Kazneni zakon, Official Gazette 125/11, 144/12, 56/15, 61/15, 101/17, 118/18, 126/19.

Legge sull'ordinamento penitenziario, L. 26 luglio 1975, n. 354, il testo coordinato della Legge sull'ordinamento penitenziario aggiornata, da ultimo, dal D.L. 10 maggio 2020, n. 29. Norme sull'ordinamento penitenziario e sulla esecuzione delle misure privative e limitative della libertà, https://www.altalex.com/documents/codici-altalex/2018/11/26/legge-sull-ordinamento-penitenziario#titolo1 Accessed 17 December 2020.

Loi Perben II (Loi n°2004-204 du 9 mars 2004 - art. 12 () JORF 10 mars 2004), https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/jorf/id/JORFTEXT000000249995/ Accessed 7 December 2020.

Strafgesetzbuch, https://www.gesetze-im-internet.de/stgb/BJNR001270871.html Accessed 6 December 2020.

Strafprozeßordnung, https://www.gesetze-im-internet.de/stpo/StPO.pdf Accessed 6 December 2020.

Strafprozeßordnung, https://www.jusline.at/gesetz/stpo. Accessed 6 December 2020.

Zakon o kaznenom postupku, Official Gazette 110/97, 27/98, 58/99, 112/99, 58/02, 143/02, (62/03), 178/04, 115/06.

Zakon o kaznenom postupku, Official Gazette 152/08, 76/09, 80/11, 121/11, 91/12, 143/12, 56/13, 145/13, 152/14, 70/17, 126/19, 126/19.

Zakon o Uredu za suzbijanje korupcije i organiziranog kriminaliteta, Official Gazette 88/01, 12/02, 33/05, 76/07.

Zakon o Uredu za suzbijanje korupcije i organiziranog kriminaliteta, Official Gazette 76/09, 116/10, 145/10, 57/11, 136/12, 148/13, 70/17.

DECISIONS OF THE SUPREME COURT OF THE REPUBLIC OF CROATIA

VSRH, I Kž 1113/07-3 of 28 November 2007.

VSRH, I Kž 671/08-5 of 23 July 2008.

VSRH, I Kž-Us 66/10-3 of 4 May 2010.

VSRH, I Kž-Us 92/10-6 of 30 June 2010.

VSRH, I Kž-Us 22/11-11 of 8 February 2012.

VSRH, I Kž-Us 36/11-11 of 28 February 2012.

VSRH, III Kž 5/12-12 of 14 and 15 January 2013.

VSRH, I Kž-Us 103/13-4 of 11 December 2013.

VSRH, I Kž-23/2015 of 7 June 2016.

VSRH, I Kž-Us 100/16-4 of 7 September 2016.

VSRH, I Kž-Us 88/2018-4 of 22 November 2018.

VSRH, Kž-rz 15/2018-6 of 8 January 2019.

WEBSITE REFERENCES

Coppola, S., Chi è il collaboratore di giustizia, 8 Gennaio 2018, https://www.laleggepertutti.it/184662_chi-e-il-collaboratore-di-giustizia Accessed 17 December 2020.

Ehrbar, K., Plea Bargaining, at 2018. Congress of European Criminal Bar Association, available at: http://www.ecba.org/extdocserv/conferences/oslo2018/PleaBargainingEhrbar.pdf Accessed 6 December 2020.

Scarpino, F., Il fenomeno della collaborazione con lo stato, La figura del « collaboratore di giustizia », 7 Marzo 2016, https://www.filodiritto.com/il-fenomeno-della-collaborazione-con-lo-stato-0 Accessed 17 December 2020.

Downloads

Published

2021-04-29

How to Cite

Ivičević Karas E, Burić Z and Pajčić M, “COLLABORATORS OF JUSTICE: COMPARATIVE LEGAL SOLUTIONS AND CROATIAN CRIMINAL PROCEDURAL LAW” (2021) 37 Pravni vjesnik accessed June 30, 2022