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“Vinica and Pranger”

Ivana Peškan ; Konzervatorski odjel u Varaždinu
Vesna Pascuttini–Juraga ; Konzervatorski odjel u Varaždinu

Puni tekst: hrvatski pdf 788 Kb

str. 283-296

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Vinica is located at the northernmost end of Croatia, in the vicinity of the Drava river that is the historical border with Slovenia. While researching the historical routes that led towards Vinica, the authors of this work discovered several new sites and gained new insights into the history of this region. Within the scope of this research, a new interesting site was discovered that has been unknown to experts so far. On a good strategic position, on a hill that is called Gradišće and overlooks the road, are the remains of a structure visible whose age has not been determined yet. It is most probably a fort or tower. Along the road that leads at the foot of the hill from the border with Slovenia towards Vinica, one comes across another interesting settlement called Malo Gradišće, in which the so–called Mikl’s chapel is located. It is a chapel from the 19th century that was built on a man–made round hill with a strategic position. Based on the name Malo Gradišće (Small Gradišće), its location and shape, it can be assumed that the chapel was built on the site of a previously unknown earlier structure. The settlement Vinica developed in an area where the fertile plain of the Drava River turns into hilly ground. The old town or fort Vinica is mentioned for the first time in the mid–14th century, i.e. in 1353, as castrum Vinica. By the end of the Middle Ages, it had lost its strategic importance, was abandoned and already in the 17th century referred to as a ruin. The fact that the fort was a royal estate during a certain period of time as well as in possession of the high nobility influenced not only the shape of the fort, but also the settlement that developed at its foot. The core of the fort, its oldest and most impressive part, consists of a central pentagonal Romanesque tower, which was probably built in the 13th century, whereas the external fort walls date to a later period. There is a preserved description of the fort from 1568 that was made during the listing of the Gyulay estates. Based on the description, it can be concluded that the fort had its main conception already at that time. A comparison can be drawn to Veliki Tabor. There are many parallels to the latter one regarding the shape. The oldest, pentagonal part of the fort can also be compared to the Romanesque pentagonal towers in the vicinity, such as fort Borl, close–by Vinica, in Slovenia, and the forts in the Varaždin surroundings– Kamenica and Paka. The parish church of St. Mark is mentioned as Item sancti Marci de Vinnicha in the list of parishes from 1334. The present–day church was built at the beginning of the 19th century. It was erected on the very same site as the mediaeval church, partially keeping the earlier dimensions. However, the orientation was altered so that today’s sanctuary is facing west. The tower and part of the nave’s western section remained preserved. Existing building material was used during the construction of the present structure, so that the church has partially kept its external walls. Also the existing moulded stone elements were extensively used as spolia. Several spolia that were extracted from the lower parts of the wall are presented in the church, such as the base of the profiling, the capital and fragment of the pilaster. These elements of architectural decoration, which date to the early 13th century, are made of limestone and represent the part of the older church that was torn down in the 19th century. The church’s interior houses many parts of the old church furnishing, such as the stone pulpit, the late Gothic free–standing stone custodia, the Renaissance relief that is built into the wall above the entrance of the vestry, tomb slabs and the built–in ancient stele. Four sculptures of small lions, remains of architectural decoration of the mediaeval church, are built into the church’s wall from the outside, two next to the porch on the southern side and two next to the porch on the church’s northern side. The form and artistic expression indicate to a Gothic master, who made some simple, yet very expressive sculptures. These sculptures are dated as works from the 14th century. They can be compared to the pair of small lions that are in the parish church near Ivanec, although the latter one is most probably a little younger if comparing their artistic design. The pillory in Vinica is a unique preserved example of a pillory and stone measure in the area of Varaždin–County and beyond. It is specific with regard to its design; a three–sided stone post with a height of 260 cm, which at the top tapers into a triangular end. The post is built into a wide stone pedestal on which there is also a stone vessel for measure with an opening on the front side. In the upper part of the post at 170 cm height, there is a male head with a moustache on each of the three sides that almost entirely comes out of the post in profile. Based on the stylistic analysis and claims that it was brought from the Vinica fort which existed in the Middle Ages, the authors argue that the pillory can be dated to an earlier time than it had been dated so far– the year 1643. They also do not exclude the possibility that it is an older monument, whose purpose is not known so far, but which got a secondary use as a pillory in the Middle Ages.

Ključne riječi

Vinica, Pranger, the Middle Ages

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