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Late Antiquity and medieval Graveyard at Crkvine in Klapavice

Ante Jurčević ; Muzej hrvatskih arheoloških spomenika

Puni tekst: hrvatski pdf 2.769 Kb

str. 249-265

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After protective and revisory investigations in the area of Crkvine in Klapavice, it was established that as weJl as the part of the location already investigated (by Bulić in 1906) there existed a whole early Christian architectonic complex. The existence of graves which originated at various times from the 5th/6th to the 16th centuries was also established. Analysing the grave architecture and the finds from the investigated graves, we can highlight graves G21, G24 and G25. Grave 21 is situated between the northern arch of the apse of Space B and the southern wall of Space A and is covered by the floor of Space B. We link its dating to the initial construction of the complex's architecture, that is, the 5th/6th century as Bulić dates it. We cannot date the vaulted tomb (G25) and the amp hora grave (G24) more precisely according to the method of burial because burials in vaulted tombs occurred from the 3rd to the Th century. According to the finds in Grave 25, a bronze buckle and an iron needle, and according to analogies with the sites of Kapljuč, Manastirine, Slima and Dikovača, we can assume that these two graves also originated at the same time as Grave 21. The other graves originate from after the destruction of the complex and are all located within Spaces B and D except for the grave (GI8) which lies alongside the external side of the northern wall of Space A. According to the method of construction, whether they were built in plaster, dry stone or vertically placed slabs and according to the shape (see the catalogue), they have the same characteristics as the majority of medieval graveyards in Dalmatia such as Crkvina in Biskupija, St Saviour at the source of the Cetina river, Dol on Bribir, Glavčin near Solin. However, some graves (Gl, G3, G4, G5, G6, G7, G13, G14, GI5, Gl6) because of their architecture, that is the border which enclosed the grave hole, form a group of graves which is set apart as a separate body. To build the border an unworked piece of stone was used of average size 30 x 40 cm and this was used to mark individual graves or groups of graves (photograph 1). This type of grave is fouod at the following sites: Šapat, Kučiće near Omiš and near Ribarić. The authors connect this type of grave to the arrival of population from the interior (Bosnia) or from the migration of the Vlahs. The only find from this group, a silver ring with an oval setting and inserted semi-precious stone was discovered in Grave 14. The closest analogies to this ring were found at Kula Atlagić inside the church of St Peter which the author dates to the 15th and 161h centuries (Photograph 2). There are also three further similar rings in the collection of the MHAS but unfortunately without data as to the location and circumstances in which they were found. Although this ring differs in size and the workmanship of its semi-precious stone, it has the same decoration on the setting which is crenulated and we can suppose that they all bel on g to the same period. We can suppose that Grave 19 also belongs to this group. Although it was superficially damaged and did not have its border preserved, it was found in the group of graves inside Space D which all have a border. The Vene tian coinage found in it and dated to the second or last third of the 161h century also confirms such an assumption. Graves 20, 22 and Graves a, b and c do not faJl into any of the above groups due to their finds. For a more precise dating of these graves, the find of a pair of iron spurs with its fastenings from Grave 22 is very significant. They belong to the large group of typically similar spurs found in the Old Croatian graveyards of Proložac-Sv. Mihovil, Cista Velika-Crkvine near Imotski, Bribir-Vratnice, Varivode-field of Mićo Berić. The basic characteristics of the iron spurs are arms of tri angular cross-section, a long prick in the centre of the spur arch, and they finish with rounded ends with studs. The rounded ends are decorated with radiating grooves around the studs. The spurs from this location, except that they have a different prick from the above examples, display aU the other characteristics, and are most similar to the spurs from the Bribir-Vratnice site which also have very similar accessories for fastening. This type of spur is dated to the end of the 9th and beginning of the lOth century. Bulić also approximately dated to this period the three smallish single-bead earrings that he found during his 1906 dig. Unfortunately he did not mention the circumstances of the finds of all items other than to say that he found some in graves. In the photograph of metal finds under numbers 3, 6 and 7 are shown three single-bead earrings very similar to that found in Grave 20 (see catalogue). This type of earring was widely distributed throughout the whole of early medieval Croatia. The first dating of earrings of this type to the 91h to 111h centuries was made by LJ Karaman and accepted by later researchers. Although investigations on this site have not been completed, it can be supposed that the graveyard was not in constant use and thus, due to various historical circumstances, was used by small communities from the 5lh_6th century, then at the end of the 91h and beginning of the IOth century and later in the 161h century. Translation: Nicholas Philip Say well

Ključne riječi

Klapavice; Crkvine; vaulted lombs; graves; spurs; ring; single-bead earrings

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