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Gender Differentiations of Cognitive-Motor Functioning in Prepubertal and Pubertal Children

Ratko Katić
Gustav Bala
Zdenka Barović

Puni tekst: engleski pdf 90 Kb

str. 563-572

preuzimanja: 502



The aim of this study was to determine cognitive and motor status factors in female and male children aged 10–14, as
well as developmental and/or integration functions according to gender. The study included 162 girls and 134 boys aged
10–14, divided into four groups: 84 girls aged 10–12 (mean age 11.26, SD 0.68), 84 boys aged 10–12 (mean age 11.41, SD
0.50), 78 girls aged 13–14 (mean age 13.52, SD 0.63) and 50 boys aged 13–14 (mean age 13.21, SD 0.53). The significance
of quantitative differences between boys and girls in the overall system of variables was defined based on the results
of canonic discriminant analysis of variance, and within each variable based on the results on univariate analysis of
variance (ANOVA). In the younger age group (10–12 years), girls were superior to boys in a test assessing flexibility
(Seated straddle stretch), whereas, compared to girls, boys had greater strength of the trunk (Crossed-arm sit-ups), greater
explosive strength of jump and sprint type (Standing broad jump and 20 m dash), and coordination (Obstacle course
backwards and Steps laterally). In the older age group (13–14 years) differences in flexibility were even more prominent
in favor of girls, whereas the differences in explosive strength increased in favor of boys, especially of the throwing type
with better agility (Steps laterally), balance (Board balance) and greater static strength of arms and shoulders (Bent-arm
hang). In order to determine qualitative differences between pubertal and prepubertal girls and boys, the matrix of variable
inter-correlations was factorized by the procedure of principal components procedure, that were then transformed to
promax solution. The results showed that cognitive functioning had a significant role in the motor efficacy of girls and
boys aged 10 to 14. In the age group of 10–12 years, in females, cognitive functioning is related to the motor system which
integrates the regulation of muscle tone with agility/coordination, whereas in males there is a relation between cognitive
abilities and the regulator of speed of upper extremities movement frequency. In the age group of 13–14 years, in females,
cognitive functioning is involved in forming the factors for regulation of coordination and the intensity of energy mobilization
in lower extremities, and to some degree, in the factor for regulation of intensity of energymobilization in upper extremities
and strength of the trunk, whereas in males the integration of synergetic regulation of movement in terms of
balance and agility in terms of speed of direction change is carried out with significant involvement of cognitive abilities.

Ključne riječi

schoolgirls; schoolboys; age 10–14 years; cognitive-motor structures

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