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Hekata Trivia from Salona

Ana Torlak

Puni tekst: hrvatski pdf 485 Kb

str. 331-344

preuzimanja: 230


Puni tekst: engleski pdf 485 Kb

str. 331-344

preuzimanja: 71



The paper discusses in detail two monuments that mention the triple goddess. The first is a relief with a depiction of triple Hecate (Hekata Trivia,) goddess with three faces, six hands and one body below which there is an epigraph harshly admonishing malefactors. Up to the beginning of the 19th century, this monument was part of the collection that was kept in the Archiepiscopal Palace in Split, as shown by a drawing of it published by A. Zaccaria in the annex to the work
Illyricum sacrum, 1751. In this paper it is established that in 1818 it was given to the Imperial Cabinet for Numismatics and Antiquities in the court of Vienna and that today it is located in the Kunsthistorisches Museumu (KHM). Since Emperor Franz I that year visited the Archbishop’s Palace, and it is well known that the Split people gave him ancient monuments, it is probable that it was on this very occasion that he was given the monument with the depiction of Hecate. The marble monument was already at that time broken into two equal parts, as can be seen in the Zaccaria drawing, and that it was secondarily used can be seen from the carefully chipped sides. Although the upper part of the monument is fairly
much chipped, the form of the damage suggests that the goddess had a two-part dress, as is usual in depictions of her. The lower part of the dress was a long peplos, profiled with slender, vertical lines, that fell down the slender body to the ground, while the upper, short part was caught at the shoulders and belted beneath the bust. The left leg is lightly bent at the knee and the body is formed in an S line, giving the observer the impression that the goddess is in motion. Full face,
it is completely chipped, while from the right and left sides outlines of the profile can be seen. Notwithstanding the damage, the poloi that she had on her heads can be glimpsed. In her arms, which are not flush with the body and are bent at the elbows, the goddess holds objects that are frontward facing. By analogy with other depictions and in the outlines of the damage, it is probably that the left and
right side were mirror images.
There is one more monument of the imperial time with an inscription and depiction of the triple goddess, although the finding site is not sure. According to archival data, this monument arrived in Vienna from Dalmatia (to the KHM) via the d’Este Collection. Above the cubic base with an epigraph, Hecate is depicted, formed into three female figures leaning with their backs against a pillar; according to the inscription it is dedicated to Diana Celcea, Celceitide. Among the
Romans this triplicity was present from the archaic time in the form of the Diva or Diana triformis which represents the incarnation of the goddess huntress, the goddess of the moon and the goddess of the underworld. In later tradition she was identified with Hecate, because of the triple forms and the common features. On the upper surface of the pillar there is a vertical rectangular concavity, suggesting the conclusion that this sculpture and its base were part of a cult monument of a household shrine, dedicated by Flavius Silvanus.
Epigraphic and iconographic analysis of the monuments shows the importance of the cult of the triple goddess in the area of Roman Dalmatia during the imperial period. Since they were taken away to Vienna as early as the 19th century, they have not yet been the subject of research. Analysis of them and their relocation in the cult context contributes to a better understanding of the cult of
the Triple Goddess in Dalmatia.

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