MEDIA LITERACY: A HYBRID WARFARE AGAINST THE FAKE NEWS AND MISINFORMATION
The first concepts of the modern notion of media literacy were developed in the 1970s and followed by a series of initiatives that supported the better recognition of the importance of learning and necessity to develop media literacy. During the 1990s, the institutionalization of media literacy began, and its basic guidelines and elements were defined. Then, media literacy continued to develop and was implemented in society.
Since then, the concept of media literacy has been changing rapidly. The dynamic and accelerated development of information and communication technologies, the emergence of new media and media habits of consumers have led to a change in the concept and understanding of media literacy. Until then, the media literacy was recognized first as an instrument for protecting consumers from negative media messages and content (most of the children and young people), and then as an instrument for protecting consumers from technology, and better civil participation.
Today, we interpret the concept of media literacy both depending on the society and the context in which media literacy is used and how it is developed. Consequently, the concept and application depends on the geographical and technological approach to the media, and therefore on the evaluation and communication through the media. Today's concept of the media literacy would be a weapon or tool for combating negative media content, manipulation, fake news, deception, propaganda, misinformation, for the purpose of critical and creative expression and better civil participation.
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