COVID-19 and Pneumonia
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has become a clinical threat to the general population worldwide. Pneumonia is a common complication of COVID-19. Most common symptoms include fever, dry cough, fatigue, sputum production, dyspnea. Less common symptoms include headaches, sore throat, gastrointestinal symptoms, upper airway symptoms, alterations in smell or taste. Higher age and comorbidities, such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, chronic lung disease, cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease and obesity, pose significant risk for patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. Common laboratory findings include lymphopenia, elevated C-reactive protein, ferritin, aminotransferase levels and lactate dehydrogenase levels. Patients who develop severe disease typically have numerous laboratory abnormalities, which suggests that SARS-CoV-2 infection may be associated with cellular immune deficiency, coagulation activation, myocardial, hepatic and kidney injury. The most frequent complications include acute respiratory distress syndrome, shock, arrhythmias, acute cardiac injury and acute renal failure. Computed tomography (CT) may prove useful as a complementary method to real-time polymerase chain reaction for diagnosing COVID-19 pneumonia. The main CT feature of COVID-19 pneumonia is the presence of ground-glass opacities (GGO), typically with peripheral and subpleural distribution. These areas of GGO may be admixed with areas of focal consolidation and/or associated with superimposed intralobular reticulations, resulting in a crazy-paving pattern.
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