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Grisogono in Spanish: Tracing Latin and Spanish editions of Giovanni Paolo Gallucci’s Theatrum mundi et temporis(1588–1617)

Ivica Martinović orcid id

Puni tekst: hrvatski pdf 9.630 Kb

str. 409-574

preuzimanja: 248



Theatrum mundi et temporis (1588) by Giovanni Paolo Gallucci has earned an exceptional place in the European reception of Federik Grisogono’s Tractatus de occulta causa fluxus et refluxus maris, owing to the fact that Gallucci in the twelfth chapter of Book I of his work included his transcription of Grisogono’s fifteen conclusions on the cause of tides, sixty years after the until then only lifetime edition of Grisogono’s treatise in Grisogono’s second book De modo collegiandi, pronosticandi, et curandi febres, necnon de humana felicitate, ac denique de fluxu et refluxu maris (1528).
In the Latin and Spanish editions of Gallucci’s work published between 1588 and 1617 Grisogono’s treatise on the explanation of sea tides, together with his instrument for determining the elevation of sea, witnessed eight or, to be more precise, at least eight editions or pseudo-editions: four Latin (1588, 1589, 1603, 1605) and four Spanish editions translated by Miguel Pérez (1606, 1611, 1614, 1617). Of the mentioned eight editions only the datation of the 1611 edition is disputable: namely, the edition contains a dedication subscribed “in November of 1614,” whereby it was impossible to locate the misprint – on the title-page or in the datation of the dedication.
The editions were published under different titles, which may account for the fact that only one, the first from 1588, was included in Grisogono’s bibliography. The first two Latin editions are titled Theatrum mundi et temporis, while the following two entitled Coelestium corporum, et rerum ab ipsis pendentium accurata explicatio per instrumenta, rotulas, et figuras warned the reader about Gallucci’s distinctive approach: inclination to movable instruments and figures. His inclination towards vivid presentation of astronomical and sea phenomena prompted Gallucci to include into his work Grisogono’s treatise, whose last page also contained a calculator for determining elevation of sea with three movable circles. The first two Spanish editions faithfully follow the first Italian title Theatro del mundo y de el tiempo, while in the third the title is expanded: Theatro y descripcion del mundo y del tiempo, and in the fourth rephrased again: Theatro y descripcion universal del mundo.
In all the mentioned editions Grisogono’s introduction was omitted, but to the Latin editions Gallucci added his own introduction and final note, and to the Spanish editions Pérez also added his own conclusion with examples.
Based on the analysis of eight editions of Gallucci’s work Theatrum mundi et temporis and its Spanish translation Theatro del mundo y de el tiempo, Grisogono’s bibliography, first published in Grmek’s Bibliographia medica Croatica (1955), is being expanded by seven bibliographical items, while the scope of the study and influence of Grisogono’s treatise on the causes of sea tides spread to the Spanish-speaking territories in the first two decades of the seventeenth century.
Among Croatian Renaissance philosophers and scientists Grisogono was the only one to have his work printed in Spanish, which implies that half a century after his death the quality of his solution for the problem of the sea tides was acknowledged in Italy and Spain.
Despite Gallucci’s efforts to transcribe Grisogono’s conclusions as faitfully as possible, he abridged or amplified them in places, or revised even. By altering Grisogono’s text, Gallucci interfered with the meaning of Grisogono’s conclusions, which is most evident in the transcription of the tenth conclusion.
In the Spanish translation of Gallucci’s transcription, which he himself referred to as “appended,” Pérez often used synonyms for Grisogono’s basic terms, employing them ungroundedly throughout his translation, battled with the superlatives of Latin adjectives and adverbs, and occasionally omitted to translate a word or two regardless of its importance to Grisogono the author. Some of his numerous amplifications contributed to a better understanding of Grisogono’s lapidary expressions. Considering that Pérez’s translation of Grisogono’s treatise is based entirely on Gallucci’s book, he thus adopted almost all the errors from Gallucci’s transcription. In his conclusion Pérez resorted to additional Aristotelization of Grisogono’s treatise, in a direction contrary to Grisogono’s original intentions.
This article is accompanied by the transcription of chapter »Del fluxo y refluxo del mar, y quantas oras crece y mengua en cada dia.« from the first Spanish edition of Theatro del mundo y de el tiempo (1606). Full documentation on the peculiarities of Gallucci’s transcription and Pérez’s translation of Grisogono’s treatise Tractatus de occulta causa fluxus et refluxus maris is comprised in the critical apparatus of the transcription.

Ključne riječi

Federik Grisogono; Giuseppe Paolo; Miguel Pérez; Aristotle; natural philosophy; astrology; navigation; instruments; tides; conjunction; opposition; quadrature; nadir; quantification of the elevation of sea

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