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Clinical and Demographic Determinants of Cognitive Disorders in Multiple Sclerosis Patients
; Department of neurology, University Clinical Center Tuzla, Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina; Faculty of medicine, University of Tuzla, Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Suljo Kunić ; Faculty of medicine, University of Tuzla, Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina; Center of neurology, Health Center of Tuzla, Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Dževdet Smajlović orcid.org/0000-0001-7426-2001 ; Department of neurology, University Clinical Center Tuzla, Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina; Faculty of medicine, University of Tuzla, Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, inflammatory, (auto) immune disease of the central nervous system (CNS). The aim of the study was to determine the distribution of cognitive disorders in MS in relation to demographic parameters, degree of clinical disability and depression. The prospective study included 135 subjects with MS in the Clinic of Neurology of the University Clinical Center in Tuzla. The first group consisted of women (101 respondents) and the second of men (34 respondents). Clinical assessment instruments were: Expanded Disability Status Scale Score, Mini Mental Status, Beck Depression Scale, Battery of Cognitive Function Assessment Tests: Wechsler Intelligence Scale, Revised Beta Test, Raven Coloured Progressive Matrix, Wechsler Memory Verification Scale, Audio Memory Test learning, Rey-Osterriecht complex character test, verbal fluency test. There were no significant differences between the mentioned groups in age, level of education, duration of the disease, severity of disease symptoms or in the prevalence of certain forms of MS. Cognitive disorders are present in 40-60 % of subjects with MS. Visuospatial, visuoconstructive, visuoperceptive functions, mnestic functions were most affected in both groups of respondents. There was no difference in the level of depression in relation to sex. Poor results of cognitive parameters in 32.7 % can be considered the cause of high scores of EDSS in female patients and in 29.2 % in patients, which is not statistically significant. The correlation between depression and EDSS is positive but not statistically significant in both sexes. Cognitive disorders are heterogeneous regardless of sex. Cognitive impairment in MS patients is related to impairment of working ability and memory, executive functions and attention. Subjects with a more severe degree of clinical disability had poorer cognitive functions.
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