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Effects of human capital, natural resource, urbanization, energy consumption on carbon emissions in the top ten emitter countries

Yu-Chen Zhang
Xi-Hua Liu
Arif Ullah
Usman Mehmood

Puni tekst: engleski pdf 1.627 Kb

preuzimanja: 14



The entire world is facing the problem of changing climate and
distortion of environmental quality due to the rapid increase in carbon
emissions. Therefore, this study was planned to examine the
world’s top ten carbon emitter countries, and the time extent was
from 1990 to 2019. We employed panel Kao cointegration and
Pooled Mean Group (PMG) techniques to explore the effect of
human development, natural resources, urbanization, and energy
use on carbon emissions. The Kao cointegration test results reveal
that endogenous variables in the study have robust cointegration
with carbon emissions. The PMG techniques results suggest that
natural resources, urbanization, and energy use positively impact
carbon emission in the top ten carbon emitters countries.
Conversely, human development has a negative impact on carbon
emission in the selected sampled nations. Based on the study’s
outcomes, the officials and policymakers of the sampled selected
countries must set a policy to ensure environmental sustainability
despite slowing down the process of economic development. More
efforts are required to improve the human development index in
the sampled selected economies. The overexploitation of natural
resources should be revoked immediately to avoid more environmental
damage. Further, green energy and urbanization should be
introduced and publicized more effectively among society.

Ključne riječi

Human development; natural resources; energy consumption; environmental quality; PMG; general; international; or comparative; public economics - financial economics; international trade; finance; investment; and aid; consumer economics - health - education and training - welfare; income; wealth; and poverty; insurance - insurance companies - actuarial studies

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