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Diabetic retinopathy – risk factors and treatment

Snježana Kaštelan orcid id ; Odjel za očne bolesti, Klinička bolnica Dubrava, Zagreb, Hrvatska
Martina Tomić ; Odjel za dijabetičke komplikacije, Odsjek za oftalmologiju, Sveučilišna klinika za dijabetes, endokrinologiju i bolesti metabolizma “Vuk Vrhovac”, Zagreb, Hrvatska
Višnja Mrazovac ; Klinika za očne bolesti Medicinskog fakulteta u Zagrebu, KBC Zagreb, Zagreb, Hrvatska
Josip Pavan ; Odjel za očne bolesti, Klinička bolnica Dubrava, Zagreb, Hrvatska
Jasmina Salopek-Rabatić ; Odjel za očne bolesti, Klinička bolnica Dubrava, Zagreb, Hrvatska
Adrijan Lukenda ; Odjel za očne bolesti, Klinička bolnica Dubrava, Zagreb, Hrvatska

Puni tekst: hrvatski pdf 625 Kb


str. 48-54

preuzimanja: 2.276



Diabetic retinopathy, the main microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus, is also estimated to be the leading cause of new blindness in the working population of developed countries. The prevalence of retinopathy in both types of diabetes increases with the duration of diabetes and is highly related to hyperglycemia, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, pregnancy, nephropathy and anemia. The most common causes of visual loss in diabetic patients are diabetic maculopathy and proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Therefore, the main goal of treatment in protecting or improving vision in these patients is to reduce vascular leakage and macular edema, retinal ischemia and growth of fragile new vessels. This would in turn prevent vitreous hemorrhages and tractional retinal detachment. The first step in managing diabetic retinopathy is to reduce the risk of retinopathy development and progression by controlling and treating the underlying risk factors. Laser photocoagulation is the primary method of treatment of macular edema and early stages of proliferative diabetic retinopathy, while pars plana vitrectomy is reserved for severe complications such as severe persistent vitreous hemorrhages or/and tractional retinal detachment. However, more recently, many researches have directed their efforts towards better understanding the microvascular changes in diabetic retinopathy in order to develop more effective pharmacologic prevention and treatment, and determine new treatment strategies. The three major classes of agents currently being studied are: corticosteroids, vascular endothelial growth factor antagonists and agents that are involved in biochemical pathways (protein kinase C inhibitors, somatostatine analogue, aldose reductase and advanced glycation end products inhibitors).

Ključne riječi

diabetic retinopathy; prevention; risk factors; treatment

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Podaci na drugim jezicima: hrvatski

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