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Damir Grubiša ; Fakultet političkih znanosti Sveučilišta u Zagrebu, Zagreb, Hrvatska

Puni tekst: hrvatski pdf 171 Kb

str. 7-36

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In this article, relying on an overview of the principal works of Renaissance
political thought, the author seeks to establish the existence of four orientations,
i.e. distinct schools within the corps of political theories of the Renaissance.
First, the school of so-called civil humanism, second, the school of
civil republicanism, third, the school of political Utopianism, and fourth, the
school of Christian humanism. This text provides a summary overview of
the main currents and their protagonists, and presents the main characteristics
of each school. Having studied the principal works of Renaissance political
thought, the author offers his periodisation and categorisation based on
the research of Hans Baron, Quentin Skinner, Pierre Mesnard, Luigi Firpo,
Paul Oskar Kristeller, etc., by contrast with the classical historians of political
thought, such as Pierre Touchard, George Sabine, Gaetano Mosca, etc.
The latter did not distinguish between the particular orientations and they reduced
the political thought of the Renaissance to an opposition between political
realism (Machiavelli) and political Utopianism (More), without taking
into consideration other orientations and schools. Unlike Baron and Skinner,
however, who derived the main current of Renaissance political thought from
civil humanism, the present author asserts that the Middle Ages spawned two
humanistic schools: the above-mentioned school of civil humanism, and the
school of Christian humanism, which also rests upon humanism and the humanistic
re-valorisation of religion. On the other hand, the school of civil
humanism gave birth to the republican orientation. With Machiavelli, however,
who was the greatest inheritor of civil humanism, this orientation went
through a metamorphosis and development in a new form of political-theoretical
discourse. With Machiavelli, the epoch of civil humanism ends, and the
period of articulation and affirmation of civil republicanism begins. The latter
will be subject to several metamorphoses, inter alia in the shape of Pocock’s
“Atlantic republicanism”. Christian humanism, on the other hand, will lead to
the development of Utopian political thought, but also to the idea of an enlightened
monarchic form of government permeated with humanistic notions
of education and morality.

Ključne riječi

civil humanism, civil republicanism, political utopianism, Christian humanism, Niccolò Machiavelli, Francesco Guicciardini, Thomas More, Erasmus

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