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Original scientific paper

Relation Between Citizenship and Nationality in the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes/Yugoslavia

Ivan Kosnica orcid id ; Faculty of Law, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia

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page 61-83

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The paper deals with the relation between the concepts of citizenship and nationality in the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, officially called the Kingdom of Yugoslavia from 1929, in the period from the formation of the state in 1918 until its defeat in the April War in 1941. The basic methodological tool used in the analysis is Charles Tilly’s classification into four basic models of relation between citizenship and nationality: the exclusive-primordial, the exclusive-learned, the inclusive-primordial and the inclusive-learned model. The author defines the relation between citizenship and nationality as the exclusive-primordial model. Having in mind the favoring of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes and subsequently other Slavs in the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, the author points out that this model should be called the exclusive-double primordial model. Key arguments for thesis about the exclusive-double primordial model were, according to the author, numerous acts including the Citizenship Code of 1928 that favored Serbs, Croats and Slovenes and in the second stage other Slavs in the procedures of determination or acquisition of citizenship. The author further points out corrections to the exclusive-double primordial model. An important correction of exclusivity was the Law on minorities which guaranteed equality to all citizens regardless of their nationality, language and religion. The correction of primordiality refers to the practice of naturalization by which the authorities accepted foreigners if an adequate degree of acculturation had been achieved. A key factor in this was the duration of residence in the country and the knowledge of the national language.


nationality; citizenship; the Kingdom of SCS; the Kingdom of Yugoslavia; Citizenship Code

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