APA 6th Edition Sekelj Ivančan, T. (2005). Torčec, Ledine 2004.-ranosrednjovjekovno naselje. Annales Instituti Archaeologici, I (1), 45-49. Preuzeto s https://hrcak.srce.hr/666
MLA 8th Edition Sekelj Ivančan, Tajana. "Torčec, Ledine 2004.-ranosrednjovjekovno naselje." Annales Instituti Archaeologici, vol. I, br. 1, 2005, str. 45-49. https://hrcak.srce.hr/666. Citirano 06.08.2020.
Chicago 17th Edition Sekelj Ivančan, Tajana. "Torčec, Ledine 2004.-ranosrednjovjekovno naselje." Annales Instituti Archaeologici I, br. 1 (2005): 45-49. https://hrcak.srce.hr/666
Harvard Sekelj Ivančan, T. (2005). 'Torčec, Ledine 2004.-ranosrednjovjekovno naselje', Annales Instituti Archaeologici, I(1), str. 45-49. Preuzeto s: https://hrcak.srce.hr/666 (Datum pristupa: 06.08.2020.)
Vancouver Sekelj Ivančan T. Torčec, Ledine 2004.-ranosrednjovjekovno naselje. Annales Instituti Archaeologici [Internet]. 2005 [pristupljeno 06.08.2020.];I(1):45-49. Dostupno na: https://hrcak.srce.hr/666
IEEE T. Sekelj Ivančan, "Torčec, Ledine 2004.-ranosrednjovjekovno naselje", Annales Instituti Archaeologici, vol.I, br. 1, str. 45-49, 2005. [Online]. Dostupno na: https://hrcak.srce.hr/666. [Citirano: 06.08.2020.]
Sažetak In the period from 10 July to 5 August 2004 the Institute for Archaeology from Zagreb in co-operation with the Koprivnica Town Museum, led by Tajana Sekelj Ivančan, Ph.D., continued
systematic archaeological excavations at the Ledine site in Torčec (Appendix 1).
In the excavations of 2004, three cultural fillings, or closed units, i.e. three early medieval structures were investigated (Appendix 2). One of the structures had a longitudinal oval shape, with rounded corners, and in the dark brown, 18 cm thick filling, dappled with soot, a small number of small ceramic fragments and some gravel were found. The second facility stood out as a dark rectangular stain. In the 0,24 m thick filling, dappled with charcoal and soot, plenty of ceramic vessel and daub fragments, two smaller iron knives and sporadic animal bones were collected. The third structure is square in shape with apparently rounded corners and an extended part on the northern side. In the 63 cm thick filling a larger quantity of daub was found, as well as fragments of several ceramic vessels, a large number of animal bones and teeth, several iron artifacts, dross, six small ceramic whorls and a dressed bone artifact were found. The central part of the pit was the deepest, becoming “atter toward the margins, whereas three holes from wooden pillars were registered on the eastern and western margin of the pit (Fig. 1). In the subsequently conducted controls of a larger area a canal was registered, extending in NW-SE direction. In the upper part of the 65 cm thick canal filling sporadic finds of extraordinarily fragmentised ceramics and crushed gravel were unearthed, whereas a metal artifact - a harpoon - stands out. Somewhat more to the south of the canal an oval burial without any material remains was registered.
According to movable material remains, particularly small short-bladed knives that were used to gut and scale fish, several types of small ceramic fishing net whorls, bone tools, of which the harpoon is particularly interesting, and larger and smaller metal hooks, we can conclude that the basic industry of the inhabitants of the settlement along the Drava River meander in Ledine was fishing. At a time when the meander was filled with water it was an inexhaustible source of food to the ancient population of Torčec.
The river was probably also the direct cause for abandonment of the settlement. According to C14 dating, the settlement existed in the tenth and eleventh centuries, and at that time or immediately thereafter there was probably a flood which, as the archaeological excavations show, destroyed the uppermost parts of the facilities and the presumed buildings between them. Layer SU 004, with finds of early medieval ceramics expanding on the entire excavated surface, suggests the same.