Sažetak A method of direct visual inspection of the temporomandibular
joint (arthroscopy) using a rocWens optical system is described. Penetration was made into the upper part of the articulation by means of a trocar surrounded by a cannula, i.e. in the terminal axis projection. Subsequently, the trocar was withdrawn and an optical tube inserted through the cannula. Arthroscopy was carried out in 44 patients(49 joints). On the basis of the results thus obtained, and compared to radiograms, conclusion has been made that arthroiscopy is the only method available allowing the difference between osteoarthrosis and arthritis to be precisesely established by differential diagnosis, which is of an utmost importance for proper thereapy to be choisen.