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Forensic DNA application: an interdisciplinary perspective

Petar Projić ; DNA Laboratorij, Genos, Zagreb
Gordan Lauc ; DNA Laboratorij, Genos, Zagreb
Dragan Primorac ; DNA Laboratorij, Genos, Zagreb

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The DNA analysis today undoubtedly has an irreplaceable role in all forensic sciences. The discovery and application of STR molecular
markers has signifi cantly improved forensic DNA analysis. The tetranucleotide STR markers are best studied and most commonly
included into the analysis of individual and population diversity. The use of SNP molecular markers is one of the more recent
approaches in population-genetic studies, medical diagnosis and identity testing. The largest part of the SNPs is an integral part of
noncoding region of the genome, for this reason being considered as selectively neutral. However, there is a certain number of SNPs
located within the coding region of the genome (cSNP) and they can infl uence the development of various multifactorial diseases.
As opposed to autosomal markers, which vary through generations, Y-linked and mitochondrial markers pass through generational
barriers unchanged (in the absence of mutations). For this reason, they are often used in population, human and forensic genetics
for tracing parental lineage. Y parental chromosome plays an important role in the cases of rape as well as in identifi cation of migration
of certain nations. With the development of molecular methods over the past years, the role of DNA analysis in animal and plant
forensics has become very notable. The number of cases in which traces of animal and plant origin are used as evidence has increased
signifi cantly. DNA technology also plays an important role in identifi cation of microorganisms that could be used for bioterrorist
attacks. The application of identity determination by DNA analysis is especially important for revealing the victims of human
traffi cking, sexual and labor abuse, as well as in combating illegal immigration and illegal adoptions. The latest trend in the fi eld of
forensic genetics is DNA phenotyping. The use of SNP markers in the process of individual genotyping serves to anticipate certain
phenotypic characteristics such as the color of the skin, eyes, hair and alike, in order to establish the identity of the remains or individualization
of a person who has left a biological trace.

Ključne riječi
biometric identifi cation; biological markers; forensic medicine; bioterrorism; emigration and immigration

Hrčak ID: 119814



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