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From a Hagiographical Pattern to a Political Manifesto – the Casket of St Simeon at Zadar as a Local arca d’oro

Nikola Jakšić ; Department of History of Art, University of Zadar, Croatia

Puni tekst: hrvatski, pdf (3 MB) str. 125-154 preuzimanja: 995* citiraj
APA 6th Edition
Jakšić, N. (2014). Od hagiografskog obrasca do političkog elaborata - škrinja Sv. Šimuna, zadarska arca d’oro. Ars Adriatica, (4), 125-154. Preuzeto s https://hrcak.srce.hr/130725
MLA 8th Edition
Jakšić, Nikola. "Od hagiografskog obrasca do političkog elaborata - škrinja Sv. Šimuna, zadarska arca d’oro." Ars Adriatica, vol. , br. 4, 2014, str. 125-154. https://hrcak.srce.hr/130725. Citirano 02.07.2020.
Chicago 17th Edition
Jakšić, Nikola. "Od hagiografskog obrasca do političkog elaborata - škrinja Sv. Šimuna, zadarska arca d’oro." Ars Adriatica , br. 4 (2014): 125-154. https://hrcak.srce.hr/130725
Harvard
Jakšić, N. (2014). 'Od hagiografskog obrasca do političkog elaborata - škrinja Sv. Šimuna, zadarska arca d’oro', Ars Adriatica, (4), str. 125-154. Preuzeto s: https://hrcak.srce.hr/130725 (Datum pristupa: 02.07.2020.)
Vancouver
Jakšić N. Od hagiografskog obrasca do političkog elaborata - škrinja Sv. Šimuna, zadarska arca d’oro. Ars Adriatica [Internet]. 2014 [pristupljeno 02.07.2020.];(4):125-154. Dostupno na: https://hrcak.srce.hr/130725
IEEE
N. Jakšić, "Od hagiografskog obrasca do političkog elaborata - škrinja Sv. Šimuna, zadarska arca d’oro", Ars Adriatica, vol., br. 4, str. 125-154, 2014. [Online]. Dostupno na: https://hrcak.srce.hr/130725. [Citirano: 02.07.2020.]

Sažetak
The casket of St Simeon the God-Receiver is the most representative work in the applied arts of the Croatian Trecento and, at the same time, one which displays great iconographic complexity. Although it was the subject of two monographs and a large number of individual articles, a whole set of questions remains open and awaits plausible interpretations. Particularly great problems are connected to the interpretation of a number of scenes which were understood differently by different scholars. At the same time, it can be noted that the discussion about the casket’s complex iconographic programme lacks a study which would address it as a unique a coherent whole in which every single scene is viewed as its irreplaceable constituent part. This article aims to demonstrate that the casket’s iconographic programme, especially that of the eight panels on its main body, was selected and arranged according to a carefully developed programme the creators of which were five noblemen of Zadar to whom Queen Elizabeth, the wife of the powerful King Louis I the Great of Hungary (1342-1382), entrusted not only the silver for the making of the casket but other important details connected to the commission such as the choice of the artist and, even more importantly, the selection of the scenes through which the casket communicated with its spectators. There is no doubt that the queen had her own demands with regard to what was depicted as can be seen in the opulent dedicatory inscription which records that she was the patron of the casket but also in the donation scene where she appears together with her daughters. It can also be said with certainty that she gave instructions for the somewhat unusual panel which depicts her standing by the catafalque of her father, Ban Stephen of Bosnia (+1354) who is being sent off to the next world by St Simeon the Righteous. It should mentioned that Ban Stephen was considered a heretic – a Bogomil – which means that being a Catholic queen, his daughter attempted to rectify the past with this panel. All these scenes are at the back of the casket. The queen undoubtedly also had a say in the selection of scenes which were depicted on the front. Those relate to the life of St Simeon which, considering that we know of only one event in his life, was done in a very skilful way: the central panel shows the saint receiving the Christ Child in the scene of the Presentation in the Temple while the panels to its left and right depict the translation of the saint’s relics which have not been identified as such in the scholarly literature. The translation consists of three scenes which are always present in the cases of translation: the finding of the body (inventio corporis), the transport of the body to a new place (translatio corporis) and, finally, the placing of the body to a new site where it would remain in the future (colocatio corporis). These three scenes were interpreted by the noblemen of Zadar in an idiosyncratic way in order to affirm the medieval Zadar and its nobility on the casket itself. The scene of the inventio corporis depicts the rectors of Zadar intervening at the last moment before a group of monks from the outskirts of town get hold of the body and place it in their monastery. In the scene of the colocatio corporis, the body of St Simeon is being carried into the Church of St Mary Major in the presence of King Louis and the grateful citizens who are led by the Bishop Nicholas Matafar. This scene depicts the return of the saint’s body from Venice where, according to the author of this article, it had been taken during the local uprising against the Venetian rule (1346-1358). At the same time, the visual message of the two scenes which flank the central one was to show that the exclusive ownership of the relics belonged to the citizens of Zadar. The conflict with the monks which erupted on a local level is being resolved by the local authorities, that is, the rectors of Zadar. When the problem becomes ‘bilateral’, that is, when it involves Venice, the dispute is settled (to the benefit of the citizens of Zadar) by their sovereign, the king of Hungary and Croatia.
The visual interpretation of the translation depicted on the casket relies greatly on the scenes from the cycle of the translation of the body of St Mark from the façade of St Mark’s basilica at Venice (the discovery and exhumation of the body, the transport of the body on a ship, the placing of the body in a new shrine). The author of the article, therefore, frequently compares the scenes on the Zadar casket to those from Venice.

Ključne riječi
Zadar; Venice; St Simeon the Prophet; St Mark; translation of relics; fourteenth century

Hrčak ID: 130725

URI
https://hrcak.srce.hr/130725

[hrvatski]

Posjeta: 1.434 *