APA 6th Edition Vuković, V. i Demarin, V. (2000). CDFI and PDI Findings in Extracranial Artery Disease. Acta clinica Croatica, 39 (4), 263-268. Preuzeto s https://hrcak.srce.hr/14984
MLA 8th Edition Vuković, Vlasta i Vida Demarin. "CDFI and PDI Findings in Extracranial Artery Disease." Acta clinica Croatica, vol. 39, br. 4, 2000, str. 263-268. https://hrcak.srce.hr/14984. Citirano 19.11.2019.
Chicago 17th Edition Vuković, Vlasta i Vida Demarin. "CDFI and PDI Findings in Extracranial Artery Disease." Acta clinica Croatica 39, br. 4 (2000): 263-268. https://hrcak.srce.hr/14984
Harvard Vuković, V., i Demarin, V. (2000). 'CDFI and PDI Findings in Extracranial Artery Disease', Acta clinica Croatica, 39(4), str. 263-268. Preuzeto s: https://hrcak.srce.hr/14984 (Datum pristupa: 19.11.2019.)
Vancouver Vuković V, Demarin V. CDFI and PDI Findings in Extracranial Artery Disease. Acta clinica Croatica [Internet]. 2000 [pristupljeno 19.11.2019.];39(4):263-268. Dostupno na: https://hrcak.srce.hr/14984
IEEE V. Vuković i V. Demarin, "CDFI and PDI Findings in Extracranial Artery Disease", Acta clinica Croatica, vol.39, br. 4, str. 263-268, 2000. [Online]. Dostupno na: https://hrcak.srce.hr/14984. [Citirano: 19.11.2019.]
Sažetak The development of duplex ultrasound instrumentation combining high-resolution B-mode imaging with Doppler flow analysis represents a major advancement in ultrasound cerebrovascular diagnosis. Duplex sonography enables not only estimation of arterial stenosis, but allows for visualization of the plaque morphology. The principal arterial abnormality detectable with B-mode sonography is plaque, which appears as echogenic material that thickens the arterial wall and obliterates the lucent zone between the intimal reflection and the adventitia. When an atherosclerotic plaque is detected, its severity, extent, morphology and location must be analyzed. The most common site of atherosclerotic plaque formation is at the carotid bifurcation. The European Carotid Surgery Trial (ECST) and North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial (NASCET) have shown that the degree of internal carotid artery stenosis is a major predictor of ipsilateral ischemic stroke in patients presenting with transient ischemic attack or minor ischemic stroke. The main location of vertebral stenosis or occlusion is the origin (V0 segment), less commonly more distally in the cervical region (V1 segment) or intracranially (V4 segment). The left subclavian artery is more often affected by atherosclerosis than truncus brachiocephalicus. The main characteristic of occlusion or stenosis of truncus brachiocephalicus are spectral changes in the right subclavian, carotid and vertebral artery. Cerebral ischemia is the most serious consequence of cervical artery dissection. Internal carotid artery is the most commonly affected vessel. In extreme cases, artery dissections can extend from the aorta to the subclavian, carotid and vertebral arteries. The term ‘vasculitis’ encompasses a heterogeneous group of multisystemic disorders; CDFI examination demonstrates thickening of the arterial wall, usually circumferential, stenosis or occlusion of the arteries.