APA 6th Edition Blažeković, I., Bilić, E., Žagar, M. i Anić, B. (2015). KOMPLEKSNI REGIONALNI BOLNI SINDROM. Liječnički vjesnik, 137 (9-10), 0-0. Preuzeto s https://hrcak.srce.hr/172725
MLA 8th Edition Blažeković, Ivan, et al. "KOMPLEKSNI REGIONALNI BOLNI SINDROM." Liječnički vjesnik, vol. 137, br. 9-10, 2015, str. 0-0. https://hrcak.srce.hr/172725. Citirano 20.10.2019.
Chicago 17th Edition Blažeković, Ivan, Ervina Bilić, Marija Žagar i Branimir Anić. "KOMPLEKSNI REGIONALNI BOLNI SINDROM." Liječnički vjesnik 137, br. 9-10 (2015): 0-0. https://hrcak.srce.hr/172725
Harvard Blažeković, I., et al. (2015). 'KOMPLEKSNI REGIONALNI BOLNI SINDROM', Liječnički vjesnik, 137(9-10), str. 0-0. Preuzeto s: https://hrcak.srce.hr/172725 (Datum pristupa: 20.10.2019.)
Vancouver Blažeković I, Bilić E, Žagar M, Anić B. KOMPLEKSNI REGIONALNI BOLNI SINDROM. Liječnički vjesnik [Internet]. 2015 [pristupljeno 20.10.2019.];137(9-10):0-0. Dostupno na: https://hrcak.srce.hr/172725
IEEE I. Blažeković, E. Bilić, M. Žagar i B. Anić, "KOMPLEKSNI REGIONALNI BOLNI SINDROM", Liječnički vjesnik, vol.137, br. 9-10, str. 0-0, 2015. [Online]. Dostupno na: https://hrcak.srce.hr/172725. [Citirano: 20.10.2019.]
Sažetak Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) represents a state of constant and often disabling pain, affecting one region (usually hand) and often occurs after a trauma whose severity does not correlate with the level of pain. The older term for this condition of chronic pain associated with motor and autonomic symptoms is reflex sympathetic dystrophy or causalgia. The aim of this review, based on contemporary literature, is to show the epidemiology and etiology, proposed pathophysiological mechanisms, method of diagnosis and treatment options, prevention and mitigation of this under-recognized disease. CRPS I occurs without known neurological damage, unlike CRPS II, where the history of trauma is present and in some cases damage to the peripheral nervous system can be objectively assessed using electromyoneurography. New diagnostic methods, such as quantitative sensory testing (CST), challenge this division because the CST findings in patients with CRPS I can suggest damage to Adelta peripheral nerve fibers. Except for distinguishing type I and type II disease, it is important to bear in mind the diversity of clinical presentation of CRPS in acute and chronic phase of the disease. This regional pain syndrome typically includes the autonomic and motor signs and thus differs from other peripheral neuropathic pain syndromes. The complexity of the clinical presentation indicates the likely presence of different pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this disease. Previous studies have demonstrated the autonomic dysfunction, neurogenic inflammation and neuroplastic changes. The diagnosis of CRPS is based on anamnesis and clinical examination on the basis of which the disease can be graded according to the Budapest Criteria. A valuable aid in differentiating subtypes of the disease is electromyoneurography. The treatment of CRPS is as complex as the clinical picture and the pathophysiology of the disease and requires interdisciplinary cooperation and individual approach. The pharmacological approach is mainly symptomatic, including analgesics, glucocorticoids, baclofen, bisphosphonates and prophylactic administration of vitamin C. Physical therapy besides preventing atrophy and contractures reduces the use of analgesic therapy. Invasive approach includes stimulation of the spinal cord, peripheral nerve catheters with anesthetic and amputation that patients in severe condition gladly accept. Further research is needed to better understand the disease and more effective therapies.