hrcak mascot   Srce   HID

Original scientific paper

The Naval Flags on the Eastern Adriatic

Željko Heimer

Fulltext: croatian, pdf (4 MB) pages 43-62 downloads: 3.514* cite
APA 6th Edition
Heimer, Ž. (2006). Vojno-pomorske zastave na istočnom Jadranu. Polemos, IX (18), 43-62. Retrieved from
MLA 8th Edition
Heimer, Željko. "Vojno-pomorske zastave na istočnom Jadranu." Polemos, vol. IX, no. 18, 2006, pp. 43-62. Accessed 20 Oct. 2020.
Chicago 17th Edition
Heimer, Željko. "Vojno-pomorske zastave na istočnom Jadranu." Polemos IX, no. 18 (2006): 43-62.
Heimer, Ž. (2006). 'Vojno-pomorske zastave na istočnom Jadranu', Polemos, IX(18), pp. 43-62. Available at: (Accessed 20 October 2020)
Heimer Ž. Vojno-pomorske zastave na istočnom Jadranu. Polemos [Internet]. 2006 [cited 2020 October 20];IX(18):43-62. Available from:
Ž. Heimer, "Vojno-pomorske zastave na istočnom Jadranu", Polemos, vol.IX, no. 18, pp. 43-62, 2006. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 20 October 2020]

The flags are used on warships since the antiquity. Among numerous flags used in the navies on warships, there are as particular flags that are used as the identification of the ship's nationality - ensigns hoisted at stern. This paper presents these flags as used by various navies that had their seat in the Eastern Adriatic. The first power that introduced naval ensigns was the Habsburg Monarchy, yellow with black imperial eagles. With the reforms of Joseph II the Austrian red-white-red triband was introduced to be used with minor alterations until the end of the Dual Monarchy. In the period after the World War I the captured naval ships used the Allied ensigns, while the majority of the Austro-Hungarian fleet that surrendered in Pula hoisted briefly the Croatian tricolours. The new South-Slavic state introduced a new tricolour. During the World War II the Independent State of Croatia used the banner of chequy arms for the ensign in its few ships. At the same time the partisans introduced the red five-pointed star in the national tricolour, sometimes used upside-down. Several designs were exchanged during the war. The Socialist Yugoslavia introduced naval flags based on the Soviet model. Even before the formal independence Croatia dropped the star from its flags and put the chequy shield in its tricolour. Until the adoption of the current design shortly the simple ad hoc versions were in use, and afterwards the ensign was of equal design to the merchant ensign. The new design adding anchors was introduced in 1999.

naval ensign; flags in navy; Austria-Hungary; Yugoslavia; Independent State of Croatia; Republic of Croatia

Hrčak ID: 17164



Visits: 4.486 *