hrcak mascot   Srce   HID

Stručni rad
https://doi.org/10.15644/asc54/1/8

Gingival Hypertrophy in a Child with Hyaline Fibromatosis Syndrome

Predrag Knežević ; Department of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery, University Hospital Dubrava, Zagreb, Croatia; University of Zagreb School of Dental Medicine, Zagreb, Croatia
Marko Tarle   ORCID icon orcid.org/0000-0002-4173-1278 ; Department of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery, University Hospital Dubrava, Zagreb, Croatia; University of Zagreb School of Medicine, Zagreb, Croatia
Lucija Ida Fratrić   ORCID icon orcid.org/0000-0002-7353-0462 ; Kustec Dental Polyclinic, Zagreb, Croatia
Antonia Tarle   ORCID icon orcid.org/0000-0002-3447-3282 ; University of Zagreb School of Dental Medicine, Zagreb, Croatia
Hana Knežević-Krajina   ORCID icon orcid.org/0000-0002-2961-1732 ; University of Zagreb School of Medicine, Zagreb, Croatia
Darko Macan   ORCID icon orcid.org/0000-0001-8632-8186 ; Department of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery, University Hospital Dubrava, Zagreb, Croatia; University of Zagreb School of Dental Medicine, Zagreb, Croatia

Puni tekst: engleski, pdf (276 KB) str. 69-74 preuzimanja: 917* citiraj
APA 6th Edition
Knežević, P., Tarle, M., Fratrić, L.I., Tarle, A., Knežević-Krajina, H. i Macan, D. (2020). Gingival Hypertrophy in a Child with Hyaline Fibromatosis Syndrome. Acta stomatologica Croatica, 54 (1), 69-74. https://doi.org/10.15644/asc54/1/8
MLA 8th Edition
Knežević, Predrag, et al. "Gingival Hypertrophy in a Child with Hyaline Fibromatosis Syndrome." Acta stomatologica Croatica, vol. 54, br. 1, 2020, str. 69-74. https://doi.org/10.15644/asc54/1/8. Citirano 23.10.2021.
Chicago 17th Edition
Knežević, Predrag, Marko Tarle, Lucija Ida Fratrić, Antonia Tarle, Hana Knežević-Krajina i Darko Macan. "Gingival Hypertrophy in a Child with Hyaline Fibromatosis Syndrome." Acta stomatologica Croatica 54, br. 1 (2020): 69-74. https://doi.org/10.15644/asc54/1/8
Harvard
Knežević, P., et al. (2020). 'Gingival Hypertrophy in a Child with Hyaline Fibromatosis Syndrome', Acta stomatologica Croatica, 54(1), str. 69-74. https://doi.org/10.15644/asc54/1/8
Vancouver
Knežević P, Tarle M, Fratrić LI, Tarle A, Knežević-Krajina H, Macan D. Gingival Hypertrophy in a Child with Hyaline Fibromatosis Syndrome. Acta stomatologica Croatica [Internet]. 2020 [pristupljeno 23.10.2021.];54(1):69-74. https://doi.org/10.15644/asc54/1/8
IEEE
P. Knežević, M. Tarle, L.I. Fratrić, A. Tarle, H. Knežević-Krajina i D. Macan, "Gingival Hypertrophy in a Child with Hyaline Fibromatosis Syndrome", Acta stomatologica Croatica, vol.54, br. 1, str. 69-74, 2020. [Online]. https://doi.org/10.15644/asc54/1/8
Puni tekst: hrvatski, pdf (276 KB) str. 69-74 preuzimanja: 138* citiraj
APA 6th Edition
Knežević, P., Tarle, M., Fratrić, L.I., Tarle, A., Knežević-Krajina, H. i Macan, D. (2020). Gingivna hipertrofija u djeteta s hijalinim fibromatoznim sindromom. Acta stomatologica Croatica, 54 (1), 69-74. https://doi.org/10.15644/asc54/1/8
MLA 8th Edition
Knežević, Predrag, et al. "Gingivna hipertrofija u djeteta s hijalinim fibromatoznim sindromom." Acta stomatologica Croatica, vol. 54, br. 1, 2020, str. 69-74. https://doi.org/10.15644/asc54/1/8. Citirano 23.10.2021.
Chicago 17th Edition
Knežević, Predrag, Marko Tarle, Lucija Ida Fratrić, Antonia Tarle, Hana Knežević-Krajina i Darko Macan. "Gingivna hipertrofija u djeteta s hijalinim fibromatoznim sindromom." Acta stomatologica Croatica 54, br. 1 (2020): 69-74. https://doi.org/10.15644/asc54/1/8
Harvard
Knežević, P., et al. (2020). 'Gingivna hipertrofija u djeteta s hijalinim fibromatoznim sindromom', Acta stomatologica Croatica, 54(1), str. 69-74. https://doi.org/10.15644/asc54/1/8
Vancouver
Knežević P, Tarle M, Fratrić LI, Tarle A, Knežević-Krajina H, Macan D. Gingivna hipertrofija u djeteta s hijalinim fibromatoznim sindromom. Acta stomatologica Croatica [Internet]. 2020 [pristupljeno 23.10.2021.];54(1):69-74. https://doi.org/10.15644/asc54/1/8
IEEE
P. Knežević, M. Tarle, L.I. Fratrić, A. Tarle, H. Knežević-Krajina i D. Macan, "Gingivna hipertrofija u djeteta s hijalinim fibromatoznim sindromom", Acta stomatologica Croatica, vol.54, br. 1, str. 69-74, 2020. [Online]. https://doi.org/10.15644/asc54/1/8

Rad u XML formatu

Sažetak
Hyaline fibromatosis syndrome (HFS) is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder characterized by accumulation of hyalinized fibrous tissue with cutaneous, mucosal, osteoarticular, and systemic involvement. The condition is caused by a mutation of ANTXR2 gene that results in a faulty synthesis of a transmembrane protein which leads up to excessive deposition of hyaline material in extracellular space. The first signs may be present at birth or appear during infancy, and joint stiffness is the first, most common, symptom. Other manifestations include joint contractures, hyperpigmented macules over bony prominences of the joints, and gingival hypertrophy. The symptom that raises suspicion of HFS is present later, along with subcutaneous growths. The progression of the disease includes enteropathy with extensive protein loss, chronic diarrhea and frequent infections. We present a case of a five-year-old girl with severe gingival hypertrophy that caused difficulties in eating and speaking.
To the best of our knowledge, this is also the first patient in Croatia with a confirmed ANTXR2 gene
mutation described in the literature.

Ključne riječi
Systemic Hyalinosis; Gingival Hypertrophy; Gingivectomy; Extracellular Matrix; ANTXR2 gene

Hrčak ID: 235711

URI
https://hrcak.srce.hr/235711

▼ Article Information



Introduction

Hyaline fibromatosis syndrome (HFS) is an extremely rare autosomal recessive disorder which appear in infancy or childhood. It is characterized by excessive deposition of amorphous hyaline substance in numerous tissues and organs, with the exception of brain tissue. HFS is caused by a mutation of the ANTXR2 gene (Anthrax Toxin Receptor - 2) located on chromosome 4q21, which encodes a transmembrane cell receptor that participates in strengthening and supporting connective tissue by reacting with the extracellular matrix (1). This transmembrane protein is called CMG2 (Capillary Morphogenesis Protein Gene - 2) and has four components. The extracellular component of the receptor consists of the von Willebrand type A domain (vWA), which continues to the immunoglobulin-like domain, followed by the transmembrane domain and finally the intracellular cytoplasmic tail (2). ANTXR2 was named after primarily being discovered as a receptor for the anthrax toxin of Bacillus anthracis. The pathogenesis of HFS has not been fully explained, but it seems that the mutation of the ANTXR2 causes the synthesis of a receptor that has impaired ability to interact with extracellular matrix components, leading to the accumulation of hyaline deposits in tissues (3). The first clinical signs may be present at birth or appear during infancy. Given the time of the disease onset, the severity of the clinical picture and survival, two syndromes with similar clinical presentation and pathological findings were described in the literature: Infantile Hyaline Fibromatosis (IHF) and Juvenile Hyaline Fibromatosis (JHF). IHF occurs earlier with more pronounced clinical picture and shorter survival, whereas JHF develops later, with milder clinical picture and longer survival. Today, after the discovery of a common genetic cause, it is clear these are stages of the same disease. In 2012, HFS was classified into 4 stages, according to severity, incidence, and survival (1, 4). Multiple nodular subcutaneous lesions, painful progressive joint contractures, hyperpigmentation of the skin, enteropathy with extensive protein loss and chronic diarrhea, frequent infections, bone lesions, gingival hypertrophy and thickening of the lip and cheek tissue belong to the characteristic manifestations of HFS (4). In this report we present a five-year-old girl with HFS who, to the best of our knowledge, is the first patient in Croatia with a confirmed ANTXR2 gene mutation described in the literature.

Case report

A 5-year-old girl was referred to the Department of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery from the pediatric clinic having the chief complaint of difficulty feeding and speaking due to extensive generalized gingival hypertrophy. She was previously diagnosed with HFS, during early infancy. Although she was born in the third trimester of pregnancy, there was an increased risk for preterm delivery managed by medications. The baby was born after full term pregnancy, without complications during delivery. The family history revealed no similar illnesses. The non-consanguineous parents already had one healthy female child. The first symptoms appeared at the age of two months, in the form of upper extremities joint stiffness. This progressed to joint contractures (Figure 1. A). At the age of two years, the patient presented hyperpigmented macules over bony prominences and stunted growth, hypotonia with normal cognitive development (Figure 1.B). As the disease progressed further, pink pearly skin papules appeared on the skin of the neck, condyloma-like growths in the perianal region, and subcutaneous nodules on the trunk and lower extremities (Figure 1.C). A biopsy of the skin and subcutaneous nodules revealed a normal structure of the epidermis and dermis with hyaline deposits in the subcutaneous tissue along with multiplied fibroblasts and blood vessels. A molecular analysis confirmed the mutation of the ANTXR2 gene. The patient underwent orthopedic correction of knee contractures at the age of three.

Figure 1 Five year old patient with Hyaline Fibromatosis Syndrome (HFS).
A. Limited joint movements: flexion deformity of elbows, wrists and small joints of both hands.
B. Hyperpigmented macules over bony prominences of the joints and multiple subcutaneous nodules.
C. Pearly papules on the back side of the neck.
D. Facial profile showing depressed nasal bridge and low set ears. Retroauricular subcutaneous nodule behind the right ear.
E. Preoperative appearance of generalized gingival hypertrophy of both jaws completely covering the teeth.
F. Early postoperative status after surgical gingivectomy with intact deciduous teeth.
G. Clinical appearance of the gingiva 1 year after the procedure.
H. Pathological specimen of excised gingiva showing accumulation of eosinophilic hyaline deposit in intercellular space.
ASC_54(1)_69-74-f1

During a clinical examination of the head and neck, skeletal deformities of viscerocranium and neurocranium (broad forehead, depressed nasal bridge, low set ears) were recorded (Figure 1.D). An intraoral clinical examination showed a limited mouth opening due to diffusely thickened skin of the oral commissures and extensive gingival hypertrophy that completely covered the crowns of the teeth (Figure 1.E).

Due to the functional impairments, a gingivectomy with electrocautery was performed, in general endotracheal anesthesia, resulting in satisfactory postoperative appearance, with healthy deciduous teeth (Figure 1.F and 1.G). During the same anesthesia, subcutaneous nodules from the lower extremities were removed by a plastic surgeon.

Discussion

J. Murray (1873) was the first to mention HFS, under the name of "molluscum fibrosum" as an unusual form of neurofibromatosis (5). B. Puretić et al. (1962) described a patient with similar manifestations and named the disease mesenchymal dysplasia. For the years to come, different names have been used for the same disease, until Y. Kitano (1972) concluded that it was the same syndrome with variable clinical presentation and introduced the term hyaline fibromatosis (3). To date, 84 cases of HFS have been described in the literature. It is equally common in males and females. Forty six ANTXR2 gene mutations have been identified so far, divided into four classes, depending on the receptor domain affected by the mutation. Recent studies showed that mutations affecting the transmembrane, immunoglobulin-like domain and von Willebrand type A domain cause a more severe disease (formerly called IHF), while mutations in the gene responsible for the intracellular part of ANTXR2 receptor cause milder disease (formerly referred to as JHF) with later onset, milder clinical presentation and longer survival (4). In 2012, R. Denadai et al. developed a 4-grade classification system. The first stage is the mildest form of the disease and involves skin changes and gingival hypertrophy. In the second stage, changes in the joints and bones are present, while in the third stage, the internal organs are affected. The fourth stage is the most severe (severely shortened life expectancy). It is, usually, diagnosed earlier than the first three stages, during the first three months of life, the first symptom being joint stiffness. The median survival in stage 4 is 15 months (6). Although our patient was diagnosed very early, at the age of two months, internal organs were not affected which would indicate that her condition is most likely stage two.

Clinically, the two most common manifestations are subcutaneous nodules (85.7%) and gingival hypertrophy (92.9%). Although subcutaneous nodules are most often found on the scalp, they were present only on the hands of our patient, on her feet and behind her ears. In the majority of cases reported in the literature these signs were the ones that led to the diagnosis (4).

Gingival hypertrophy results in impaired oral hygiene that can cause odontogenic infections and difficulties in feeding. Our patient had great difficulties in eating, however, gingival hypertrophy didn’t cause tooth decay. Perhaps, the fact that the gingiva covered the entire crowns of the teeth completely acted as a protective mechanism. Hypertrophic gingiva was enlarged but painless, hard and normal in color. Gingival hypertrophy can cause difficulties in permanent teeth eruption. In older children, it can cover the entire occlusal surfaces of the teeth, causing difficulty in chewing and speaking. As a part of HFS, gingival hypertrophy can be localized or generalized. Hypertrophy is most commonly localized on the palatal side of the tuber of the upper jaw or the lingual side of the lower alveolar ridge (7, 8).

The characteristic pathological features are the accumulation of amorphous, eosinophilic hyaline substance in many tissues and organs as found in the presented case (Figure 1.H) (9). Although the composition and origin of the hyaline substance is not yet fully known, some studies indicate that mutation of the ANTXR2 gene, due to receptor dysfunction, leads to destabilization and dysregulation of extracellular matrix components. Type IV and VI collagen and laminin have been shown to be the major ligands of receptors, and, in case of ANTXR2 dysfunction, they accumulate in the extracellular space. In addition, there is a proliferation of spindle and inflammatory cells (4). Pathological differential diagnosis includes Farber disease, I-cell disease (mucolipidosis II), Pseudo-Hurler polydistrophy (mucolipidosis IIIa) and lipoid proteinosis of Urbach and Wiethe (7). Given that there is no cure for HFS today, treatment is symptomatic and involves surgical removal of the gingiva and subcutaneous nodules. Unfortunately, poor results have been reported in the literature using interferon alfa-2B, corticosteroids, penicillamine and methotrexate (4, 10). Due to the extreme rarity of HFS and the short life span of patients, there is no consensus on treatment modalities to date. The most common cause of death in HFS is persistent diarrhea, frequent infections, and organ failure (6). Due to the recurrence of gingival hypertrophy, additional surgery is needed; however there is no doubt that gingivectomy greatly improves the quality of life in these patients (7, 8). In our case, one year follow up shows satisfactory results without local recurrence. After the procedure, the patient gained weight which is significant considering her stunted growth.

Until the cure for HFS has been found, it is necessary to focus on a multidisciplinary approach in the diagnosis and treatment of these patients and provide psychological support for the family. Although these patients suffer from a range of symptoms, it is necessary to address gingival hypertrophy in the earliest opportunity to allow proper nutrition, which is imperative bearing in mind their slower growth and development.

Notes

[1] Conflicts of interest The authors have no competing interests.

Patient consent

Written patient consent was obtained from the patient’s family.

References

1 

Hanks S, Adams S, Douglas J, Arbour L, Atherton DJ, Balci S, et al. Mutations in the gene encoding capillary morphogenesis protein 2 cause juvenile hyaline fibromatosis and infantile systemic hyalinosis. Am J Hum Genet. 2003 October;73(4):791–800. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/378418 PubMed: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14508707

2 

Sun J, Collier RJ. Disulfide bonds in the ectodomain of anthrax toxin receptor 2 are required for the receptor-bound protective-antigen pore to function. PLoS One. 2010 May 10;5(5):e10553. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0010553 PubMed: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20479891

3 

Rahvar M, Teng J, Kim J. Systemic Hyalinosis With Heterozygous CMG2 Mutations: A Case Report and Review of Literature. Am J Dermatopathol. 2016 May;38(5):e60–3. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/DAD.0000000000000467 PubMed: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26885603

4 

Casas-Alba D, Martínez-Monseny A, Pino-Ramírez RM, Alsina L, Castejón E, Navarro-Vilarrubí S, et al. Hyaline fibromatosis syndrome: Clinical update and phenotype-genotype correlations. Hum Mutat. 2018 December;39(12):1752–63. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.23638 PubMed: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30176098

5 

Murray J. On three peculiar cases of molluscum fibrosum in children in which one or more of the following conditions were observed: hypertrophy of the gums; enlargement of the ends of the fingers and toes; numerous connective tissue tumours on the scalp and other parts of the surface of the body, with various superficial affections of the skin. Med Chir Trans. 1873;56:235–54.1. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/095952877305600116 PubMed: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20896407

6 

Denadai R, Raposo-Amaral CE, Bertola D, Kim C, Alonso N, Hart T, et al. Identification of 2 novel ANTXR2 mutations in patients with hyaline fibromatosis syndrome and proposal of a modified grading system. Am J Med Genet A. 2012 April;158A(4):732–42. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.35228 PubMed: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22383261

7 

Hallikerimath S, Kale A, Kotrashetti V. Oral Juvenile Hyaline Fibromatosis: A Rare Entity. Acta Stomatol Croat. 2011;45(1):46–51.

8 

Rajendran P, Karmegaraj B, Vij M, Scott JX. Unusual cause for gum hypertrophy and skin nodules in a child. BMJ Case Rep. 2015 December 18;2015:bcr2015211506. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2015-211506 PubMed: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26682835

9 

Urbina F, Sazunic I, Murray G. Infantile systemic hyalinosis or juvenile hyaline fibromatosis? Pediatr Dermatol. 2004 March-April;21(2):154–9. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0736-8046.2004.21214.x PubMed: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15078358

10 

Ruiz-Maldonado R, Durán-McKinster C, Sáez-de-Ocariz M, Calderón-Elvir C, Yamazaki-Nakashimada MA, Orozco-Covarrubias L. Interferon alpha-2B in juvenile hyaline fibromatosis. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2006 May;31(3):478–9. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2230.2006.02089.x PubMed: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16681619


This display is generated from NISO JATS XML with jats-html.xsl. The XSLT engine is libxslt.

[hrvatski]

Posjeta: 1.354 *