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Review article
https://doi.org/10.2478/acph-2021-0001

The controversies of parabens – an overview nowadays

ZVONIMIR PETRIC ; Unit of Pharmacokinetics and Drug Metabolism, Department of Pharmacology at the Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, 40 530 Göteborg, Sweden
JULIA RUŽIĆ ; Independent Unit of Toxicology, University of Zagreb Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry 10 000 Zagreb, Croatia
IRENA ŽUNTAR   ORCID icon orcid.org/0000-0002-6793-6263 ; Independent Unit of Toxicology, University of Zagreb Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry 10 000 Zagreb, Croatia

Fulltext: english, pdf (378 KB) pages 17-32 downloads: 295* cite
APA 6th Edition
PETRIC, Z., RUŽIĆ, J. & ŽUNTAR, I. (2021). The controversies of parabens – an overview nowadays. Acta Pharmaceutica, 71 (1), 17-32. https://doi.org/10.2478/acph-2021-0001
MLA 8th Edition
PETRIC, ZVONIMIR, et al. "The controversies of parabens – an overview nowadays." Acta Pharmaceutica, vol. 71, no. 1, 2021, pp. 17-32. https://doi.org/10.2478/acph-2021-0001. Accessed 16 May 2021.
Chicago 17th Edition
PETRIC, ZVONIMIR, JULIA RUŽIĆ and IRENA ŽUNTAR. "The controversies of parabens – an overview nowadays." Acta Pharmaceutica 71, no. 1 (2021): 17-32. https://doi.org/10.2478/acph-2021-0001
Harvard
PETRIC, Z., RUŽIĆ, J., and ŽUNTAR, I. (2021). 'The controversies of parabens – an overview nowadays', Acta Pharmaceutica, 71(1), pp. 17-32. https://doi.org/10.2478/acph-2021-0001
Vancouver
PETRIC Z, RUŽIĆ J, ŽUNTAR I. The controversies of parabens – an overview nowadays. Acta Pharm. [Internet]. 2021 [cited 2021 May 16];71(1):17-32. https://doi.org/10.2478/acph-2021-0001
IEEE
Z. PETRIC, J. RUŽIĆ and I. ŽUNTAR, "The controversies of parabens – an overview nowadays", Acta Pharmaceutica, vol.71, no. 1, pp. 17-32, 2021. [Online]. https://doi.org/10.2478/acph-2021-0001

Abstracts
Effects of paraben toxicity, i.e., endocrine-disruption properties, are in the focus of researchers for decades, but still – they are a hot subject of debate. Parabens are aliphatic esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, which are widely used as antimicrobial agents for the preservation of cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and foods. Mostly used parabens are methyl-, ethyl-, propyl- and butylparaben. Although the toxicity of parabens is reported in animals and in in vitro studies, it cannot be taken for granted when discussing hazards for human health due to an unrealistic exposure-safety profile. Many studies have demonstrated that parabens are non-teratogenic, non-mutagenic, non-carcinogenic and the real evidence for their toxicity in humans has not been established. For now, methyl-, ethyl- and propylparaben are considered safe for use in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals within the recommended range of doses. Regarding alternatives for parabens, a variety of approaches have been proposed, but every substitute would need to be tested rigorously for toxicity and safety.

Keywords
parabens; toxicity; safety; endocrine disruption; health risk

Hrčak ID: 236059

URI
https://hrcak.srce.hr/236059

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