Sažetak The article starts with trying to understand the various meanings of foundations. To found can mean to establish, to lean on sound foundations or to explain something. These varied definitions unite in freedom. The idea of freedom lies in the foundations of politics. The article presents an overview of the most significant junctions in Western thought about the political order of mutual human relations. It reflects on the emergence of questions about politics in general in ancient times with the birth of Greek thought, of Plato's parallelism ofthe soul and polis in which the soul is a mirror in the order ofthe polis; then of Aristotle's understanding of man as a social being where life in the polis is understood as the result of human social nature; then of the Hellenic cosmopolitism, early Christianity and Medieval political philosophy where the need to order relations between the Church and State are put in the fore. At the start of the new era the comprehension of politics is placed in between the names Machiavelli and Hobbes and politics is taken to mean protection against evil. With John Locke, whose thought is based on the idea of freedom, a key role within political philosophy is dedicated to its understanding of instinct for self sustenance which at the same time leads to a pre-political situation in the political order of human relations and protects against tyranny which is alluded to with Hobbes. The article reflects on the discovery of collective will in Rousseau, to Hegel's notion of the State as a feature of freedom and then on to positivism and the crisis of political philosophy experienced in the last century and contemporary liberal-communitaristic debates to Galimberti and Western politics in the era of technology and finally to the pluralism of political theories differentiating normative and empirical-analytical approaches. This panoramic approach is offered because of the original purpose of the article. Namely, in order to seriously approach thought about a theological-pastoral approach to politics or debate about Christian identity in contemporarv society it is necessary to disclose what infact guides contemporary development of political thought. The article intends to facilitate pastoral activists in their understanding of relations between politics and pastoral work from an historical panoramic perspective of the development of Western political philosophy.