Sažetak In 1510 Marko Marulić (Split, 1450-1524) translated from Croatian into Latin a short text, the so-called Croatian Chronicle. The text was in itself a translation from Latin, containing an excerpt from the medieval Chronicle of the Priest of Doclea, which Marulić and his friends obviously did not know, because Marulić explained in the preface that he wanted »not only speakers of our local language, but also those who know Latin« to read the text. Marulić gave his Latin version the title Regum Delmatię atque Croatię gesta (RDCG, The Deeds of the Dalmatian and the Croatian Kings). Endorsed by the name of its illustrious translator, for over 150 years – until 1688, when Ivan Lučić (Ioannes Lucius, Giovanni Lucio) published his De regno Croatiae et Dalmatiae libri sex – RDCG remained an authoritative narrative source for the earliest history of Croatia. The popularity of RDCG is attested to by the number of manuscripts still extant: there are nine of them (with a fragmentary tenth). However, to this day the MSs have not been completely described, examined, or collated. This paper, a by-product of editing RDCG for the Marci Maruli Opera Omnia, lists all the available MSs, editions, and paraphrases, proposes a stemma codicum, and makes some suggestions for a cultural history of RDCG manuscripts.
The ten MS copies of RDCG are as follows:
Codex Recanati (R) Venice, Biblioteca Giustiniani Recanati, Class. VI 865, Cod.
XII. Miscellanea written by Gian Giacomo Bertolotti of Parma (1460 – after1530). Codex Ambrosianus (A) Milan, Biblioteca Ambrosiana, S. 98 sup., fondo Gian Vincenzo Pinelli, misc. saeculi XVI.
Codex Vaticanus (V) Vatican, Bibliotheca apostolica Vaticana (Codex MS Slavonicus) Vat. lat. 7019. Written by Petar Cindro from Split (around 1600). Annotated and supplemented by Ivan Lučić, who worked on the MS in January of 1638.
Codex Vaticanus secundus (L) Vatican, Bibliotheca apostolica Vaticana, Vat. lat. 6958. misc. XVII. Written before 1666, by Ivan Lučić and his scribes, as a final copy for publication in the Rerum Dalmaticarum scriptores nondum impressi, a companion volume to the De regno Dalmatiae et Croatiae libri sex (Frankfurt, apud Joannem Blaeu, 1666).
Codex Belgradensis (B) Beograd, Narodna Biblioteka Srbije, R 570, written about 1648-1649. Codex Iadertinus (I) Zadar, Znanstvena knjižnica, 15820/Ms. 377 cart. misc. XVII.
Written by Aleksandar Gazarović, copied from the edition of Lučić. Codex Zagrabiensis (Z) Zagreb, Nacionalna i sveučilišna knjižnica, R 3254; 18th c. Codex Marcianus (M) Venice, Biblioteca Marciana, Cod. It XI. 246 (6806) – fasc.
36, Bibliotheca codicum manuscriptorum Monasterii S. Michaelis Venetiarum prope Muranum. Codex Camaldolensis (C) Camaldoli, Archivio del Sacro Eremo, 1116. cart. misc. saeculi XVIII; another MS from the S. Michele di Murano monastery.
Colloquia Maruliana XVIII (2009.)
Codex Vindobonensis (W) cod. Ser. n. 4498, 219 ff. Second half of 18th c. Copies
just the dedicatory letter by Marko Marulić to Dmine Papalić, from the Rerum
Dalmaticarum scriptores nondum impressi.
There are also two paraphrases of the RDCG: it was included in the De rebus Dalmaticis libri octo by Dinko Zavorović of Šibenik (1540-1608), and Memoria regum et banorum regnorum Dalmatiae, Croatiae et Sclavoniae... (1652) by Juraj Rattkay (1612-1666).
In all, thirteen witnesses to the RDCG text are relevant: eight MSs, three editions, the paraphrases of Zavorović and Rattkay. For the 4500 words of RDCG there are some 1300 variations, with about 3000 variant readings. There seem to be two families: one which leaves out the so-called Paluša episode (a story of Tecomilus, who accidentally kills a hunting dog of his master Udislavus), comprising MSs V, L (and Lučić’s edition), and B (which supplies the episode from another source, and is closely related to Zavorović’s and Rattkay’s paraphrases); the Paluša episode is transmitted in the other family, comprising R, A, M, C, Z.
Thirteen witnesses of the RDCG textual tradition present not only an editorial challenge, but also a historical fact which requires interpretation. The focus here shifts from the author himself to all scribes, readers, and communities interested in the survival of the text. What needs were met by the copying of RDCG? By which routes did the text travel and propagate? How did scribes and readers react to the text, how important was it for them?
Modern locations of the RDCG manuscripts suggest that the text spread from Dalmatia to Italy (in this story the Murano monastery of S. Michele seems to be an especially important place). But we cannot yet with any certainty reconstruct the transmission of the RDCG text to Dubrovnik – where RDCG was used by Marulić’s slightly younger contemporary, the historian Ludovik Crijević Tuberon (1458-1527)
– and, from that point, to the north. A link between Crijević Tuberon and Juraj Rattkay could be the Hungarian historian Nikola (Miklós) Istvánffy (1538-1615), who knew and used the historical work of Crijević; Rattkay, who had access to Istvánffy’s rich library, could have found there some MS of the RDCG. Zavorović also testifies to finding a manuscript of the text somewhere in the Habsburg lands, during his exile from Šibenik (1585-1588).
The Italian MSs place RDCG strongly in the context of Renaissance Humanism, in the miscellanies of people (Bertolotti and Pinelli) interested in all kinds of knowledge. Later, however, RDCG is encountered in more specialized historiographical collections (cf. codices V, Z, and B).
On the other hand, MSs of RDCG do not show much trace of careful use or study: scribes and readers have added relatively few marginal notes, comments, and corrections. The only exception here is Ivan Lučić, whose annotations in V (not all of which ended up as notes in the Rerum Dalmaticarum scriptores 1688 edition) suggest a vigorous engagement with Marulić’s text. But even Lučić, who used at least two MSs and compared the text with its Croatian original, was not much interested in philology or in language; as many before and after him, he read RDCG primarily as a historian.