Izvorni znanstveni članak
Croatian Norway spruce cultures in European concept of culture management
; Croatian Forest Research Institute, Cvjetno naselje 41, 10450 Jastrebarsko, Croatia
SANJA PERIĆ ; Croatian Forest Research Institute, Cvjetno naselje 41, 10450 Jastrebarsko, Croatia
Background and Purpose: Forest cultures observed at European and
world level possess great importance. Culture establishment or afforestation practice throughout which unforested area is brought to controlled wood production, if considered in relation to uncontrolled natural succession,presents enhancement of wood production, growing stock structure and altogether enhancement of total biological and social potential of the area. Even though in comparisonwith broadleaved natural stands, conifer cultures in general and spruce monocultures in particular, have less favorable impacts on specific site features but their advantages are still greater than disadvantages in relation to areas left to natural succession. In addition, possible negative impacts are mitigated by the fact that they are completely renewable and economical, social, cultural and environmentaly sustainable source when clever planning, management, utilization and marketing is applied. Norway spruce has got very important role since its site requirements
are extremely low and it could act as a favorable species for afforestation processes.The specific European historical and management circumstances and management problems could not be related to Croatianwhile at the same time specific given solutions could not be applied to Croatian site conditions and management possibilities without more detailed insight. Insight into these differences is needed especially because management of spruce monocultures in Croatia entails substantial past and present unresolved problems. This species currently presents the only autochthonous high productive tree species suitable for afforestation. In specific, all differences related to possible further afforestation practice and spruce monoculture management options have been considered, for instance, total area and size
of monocultures, social, economical, management and silvicultural circumstances which altogether could present advantages or disadvantages for N. spruce cultures increase (pure ormixed with broadleaved species) and change of management options in the future.
Discussion and Conclusion: Current amount of available land for afforestation in Croatia is subjected to rough estimations (about 1 million ha) which in comparisonwith the total of 2 688 687 ha of forests and forest land clearly shows the importance of the afforestation potential and possibilities for Croatia. Even with addition of growing negative environmental impacts specific problems connected with spruce monocultures are mainly connected with intensive production which withdraw additional silvicultural measures to enhance productivity and stability and lower the damages. If all considerations are taken into account monocultures on large areas, in more than one subsequent rotations and on unfavorable sites, add to lack of stability and productivity and growing environmental problems which otherwise could be avoided. Since in Croatia those kind of spruce management is not practiced and available afforestation areas are fragmented and small, those negative impacts could be avoided and N. spruce as only autochthonous species with high production could be proper solution for afforestation on significant land area. And, when planned
and managed as first successional step on abandoned agricultural
land and forest land without tree cover there should not beworries about negative impacts.Nevertheless, possible increase of spruce culture establishment in the future creates a need for further research in substitution and conversion techniques into autochthonous climatogenic tree species forests under the natural principles of forest
and site management.
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