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Criteria of top form in highly qualified athletes

Tzvetan Jelyazkov ; National Sports Academy, Sofia, Bulgaria

Puni tekst: engleski pdf 1.180 Kb

str. 38-47

preuzimanja: 82



Top form in sports is a dynamic adaptive state of an individual with a complex hierarchical structure. The issue of its criteria is debatable, but can be solved on the basis of the systematic approach and the theory of multidimensional spaces. From this point of view top form is regarded as an integral model of the preparedness of an athlete to realize his/her own potential in sport performance. The quantitative and qualitative parameters of that state can be presented as components of a variable vector, x(t) = {x1(t), x2(t), … xn(t)}
Hypothesis: In the n-dimensional space there is an area which, under definite conditions, is characterized by the least sum of the squares of the distances between the various components of motor activity (factors of sport performance) - x1, x2, …, xn. This optimized model of an athlete's specific work capacity is termed sports form. Object of study: wide range of elite athletes in track and field athletics, rowing, canoeing, wrestling, boxing and basketball over the period 1975-1997 (a total of 7835 cases). Subject of study: basic parameters of total functional capacity, VO2max, Wmax, etc. and the specific parameters of motor activity as well as the dynamics of sport results bin the annual cycles. All data were processed by the methods of multidimensional statistical analysis and are presented as natural values or as statistical quantities (ß-coefficients or normalized Z-values). The quantitative and logical analysis of the results of this study leads to the following major conclusions:
1. Top form is a state or condition which reflects a generalized process of biosocial adaptation, i.e. a transition from the lower determined levels to higher stochastic levels of behavior in the system-athlete;
- the first level is characterized by stable parameters of the athletic condition achieved by training (preparedness)as a natural basis of top form;
- the second level is characterized by a definite selectivity of the adaptation process - the development of the major functions building up to the so-called specialized basis of top form;
- the third level is characterized by much more mobile (operative) components of the specific work capacity.
2. Top form is a qualitatively new state of the athletic condition (preparedness) where all the factors of sport performance are optimally correlated to the so-called concordance which provides a maximum realization of the athlete's motor potential.
3. Top form is a non-standard state and behavior of a multi-dimensional and multi-variant biosocial system that exchanges matter, energy and information with its environment, and under defined conditions (most often stress) is spontaneously destabilized, ic. tends towards its entropy, similar to the so-called dissipate systems according to the theory of Nobel Prize winner Prigozhin (1977). This determines the phasic (cyclic) nature of top form, as confirmed by the sport performance of a number of world and Olympic champions: M. Ottey (100m and 200 m), P. Ereng (800 m), S. Kostadinova (high jump), N. Bukhalov (canoeing), etc.
4. An integral criterion of top form are the high and stable sport results, above the corresponding “criterial threshold",i.e. about 1.5 - 2.5% below the maximal (top) individual performance.

Ključne riječi

top form, athletic condition, top athletes, dynamics of sport results

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