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An overview of the cave and interstitial biota of Croatia

Sanja Gottstein Matočec orcid id orcid.org/0000-0002-1424-2911 ; Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, P.O. Box 933, Rooseveltov trg 6, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
Tatjana Bakran-Petricioli ; Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, P.O. Box 933, Rooseveltov trg 6, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
Jana Bedek ; Croatian Natural History Museum, Demetrova 1, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
Dragan Bukovec ; Croatian Natural History Museum, Demetrova 1, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
Suzana Buzjak ; Croatian Natural History Museum, Demetrova 1, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
Marijana Franičević ; Institute of oceanography and fisheries, Šetalište I. Meštrovića 63, P.O. Box 500, 21000 Split, Croatia
Branko Jalžić ; Croatian Natural History Museum, Demetrova 1, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
Mladen Kerovec ; Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, P.O. Box 933, Rooseveltov trg 6, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
Eduard Kletečki ; Croatian Natural History Museum, Demetrova 1, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
Jelena Kralj ; Institute of Ornithology, Ilirski trg 9, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
Petar Kružić ; Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, P.O. Box 933, Rooseveltov trg 6, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
Mladen Kučinić ; Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, P.O. Box 933, Rooseveltov trg 6, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
Mladen Kuhta ; Institute of Geology, Sachsova 2, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
Neven Matočec ; Croatian Biospeleological Society, Demetrova 1, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
Roman Ozimec ; Croatian Biospeleological Society, Demetrova 1, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
Tonći Rađa ; Speleološko društvo »Špiljar«, Ulica Slobode 28, 21000 Split, Croatia
Ivančica Ternjej ; Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, P.O. Box 933, Rooseveltov trg 6, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
Nikola Tvrtković ; Croatian Natural History Museum, Demetrova 1, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia


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Sažetak

The karst areas in Croatia, part of the Dinarides, have been defined biospeleologically as an area of high biodiversity in world terms, covering 26 thousand km2 in all. In this monograph we give data about the biodiversity of subterranean habitats and their biota primarily from a taxonomic perspective with special attention being paid to regional diversity. The diversified geomorphology, hydrology and climate have resulted in a remarkable range of different underground habitats in Croatia, viz. inland and coastal caves, superficial and deep phreatic networks, interstitial – hyporheic substrates and other infiltration zones, etc. In Croatia more than 500 obligate subterranean species and subspecies are known from caves and interstitial habitats. The majority of subterranean species in Croatia are terrestrial biota. There are 299 troglobiont and 170 stygobiont taxa (species and subspecies) recorded. Most subterranean species have very restricted ranges, almost 70% of them endemic to Croatia. Cave fungi are poorly known. Among them there are several important parasitic troglobionts and troglophilic species on cave coleopterans and troglophilic moths in Croatian caves. Some saprotrophic species could be troglobiotic too but their taxonomic and/or ecological status must be clarified in future research. With a respect to the number of troglobionts, the five largest animal groups are Coleoptera, Pseudoscorpiones, Araneae, Gastropoda and Diplopoda. The beetles (Coleoptera) are predominant. More than 100 cavernicolous beetles (species and subspecies) are known in Croatia. Among stygobionts, the Crustacea predominate. At least half of species described are Crustacea. Among Crustacea, the orders Syncarida and Thermosbaenacea are exclusively stygobiotic. Numerically, among crustacean stygobiotic Amphipoda dominate in caves and Copepoda in interstitial habitats. The only known stygobiotic sponge Eunapius subterraneus Sket et Velikonja inhabits several caves in Croatia. Also, the only known stygobiotic clam Congeria kusceri Bole inhabits a series of caves in Croatia. Other important groups include hydrozoa, planarians (Temnocephalida and Tricladida), snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda) and the only European stygobiotic Chordata Proteus anguinus Laurenti. The high taxonomic diversity of the subterranean biota of Croatia can be attributed partly to the geographical heterogeneity and a rather unique combination of various geological and ecological phenomena.

Ključne riječi

subterranean biota, biospeleology, stygobionts, troglobionts, biodiversity, karst, cave, interstitial habitat, terrestrial habitat, groundwater, distribution, Croatia

Hrčak ID:

32761

URI

https://hrcak.srce.hr/32761

Podaci na drugim jezicima: hrvatski

Posjeta: 6.770 *